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Glucose (blood sugar) -- A simple sugar, the breakdown product of carbohydrates that becomes the raw material for energy production inside cells.

Glucose-lactate cycle (Cori cycle) -- The metabolic partnership between muscles and liver to support active muscle work. Refers to the sequence involving breakdown of carbohydrates, glycogen storage in liver, passage of glucose into the bloodstream and subsequent storage in muscle fibers as glycogen, the breakdown of glycogen during muscle activity, the production of lactic acid in this process, and the conversion of lactic acid to glycogen again.

Glucose polymers -- A low glycemic carbohydrate supplement that delivers a steady source of energy for workouts and restoration. "Branching" glucose polymers (i.e., glucose molecules comprised of differing glycemic indexes due to their structural complexity) are available as drinks, powders and tablets.

Glucose Tolerance -- Glucose tolerance refers to an individual's ability to metabolize glucose.

Gluteals -- Abbreviation for gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; the hip extensor muscles. Also called buttocks or glutes.

Glycemic index -- A rating system that indicates the different speed with which carbohydrates are processed into glucose by the body. In general, complex carbohydrates are broken down slower, providing a slow infusion of glucose for steady energy. Refined, simple carbohydrates usually are absorbed quickly, causing energy-disturbing fluctuations of glucose.

Glycogen -- The common storage form of glucose in the liver and muscles that is biochemically processed as part of the energy-producing cycle. Glycogen, a polysaccharide commonly called animal starch, is readily converted into glucose as the energy needs of the body require.

Glycogenolysis -- The cellular breakdown of stored glycogen for energy, which is regulated by the enzyme phosphorylase.

Glycolysis -- The metabolic process that creates energy via splitting a molecule of glucose to form either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and produce ATP molecules. Glycolysis in an important part of anaerobic metabolism.

Glycolytic Sports -- Sports such as wrestling, boxing, 200 meter dash and other long sprint or mid-distance sprints wherein the glycolytic pathway of muscle energy production (the breakdown of muscle sugar, glycogen, in order to produce more CP and ATP) is involved (see glycogen, ATP and CP).

Golgi tendon organs -- Nerve sensors ("proprioceptors"), located at the junction of muscles and tendons, that pick up messages of excess stress on the muscle and cause the brain to shut off muscle contraction. The purpose may be to protect against separating the tendon from bone when a contraction is too great. Called "the feedback loop," this shut-off threshold can be pushed back or delayed (e.g., toward one's maximum strength potential) through "jerk training," where you carefully perform repeated submaximum jerks with weights. Cf. muscle spindle, proprioceptor.

Graded exercise test (GXT) -- A treadmill, or cycle-ergometer, test that delivers heart rate, ECG, and other data. Workload is gradually increased until an increase in workload is not followed by an increase in oxygen consumption; this identifies the individual's maximal oxygen uptake. Allows the prescribing of exercise to the individual's actual, rather than estimated, heart rate or aerobic

capacity. Requires medical supervision. Cf. physical work capacity.

Green Tea -- Green tea, also known as GTA (green tea antioxidant) or GTE (green tea extract), has been clinically shown to be as much as 200 times more effective than vitamin E at scavenging hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals (see Free radicals). As such, it is perhaps the most potent antioxidant kknown to man in its ability to prevent 1) antibacterial and antiviral activity, 2) anti-platelet and hyocholesterolemic activity, 3) lung cancer due to smoking, 4) skin damage and skin cancer due to radiation, 5) a host of other age-related maladies. The active ingredients of green tea are called polyphenol catechins, with (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCg) being by far the most important. Green tea is unprocessed; black tea is the same plant but highly processed; Oolong tea, also from the same plant, is partially processed tea..

Growth hormone (GH) -- A growth hormone is any substance that stimulates growth, especially one secreted by the pituitary (somatotropin) which exerts a direct effect on protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and controls the rate of skeletal, connective (collagenous) tissue and visceral growth.
 

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Hamstring -- The big muscle along the back of your upper leg which extend from above the hip to below the knee.

Health risk appraisal -- A procedure that gathers information about a person's behaviors, family

history, and other characteristics known to be associated with the incidence of serious disease, and uses that information to compare the individual's present risks with the lower risks that could be achieved by changing certain behaviors.

Heart attack -- An acute episode of any kind of heart disease.

Heart rate -- The number of times your heart beats in one minute.

Heart rate reserve -- The difference between the resting heart rate and the maximal heart rate.

Heat cramps -- Muscle twitching or painful cramping, usually following heavy exercise

with profuse sweating. The legs, arms, and abdominal muscles are the most often affected.

Heat stroke -- A life threatening illness when the body's temperature-regulating mechanisms fail. Body temperature may rise to over 104 degrees F, skin appears red, dry, and warm to the touch. The victim has chills, sometimes nausea and dizziness, and may be confused or irrational. Seizures and coma may follow unless temperature is brought down to 102 degrees within an hour.

Heat syncope -- Fainting from the heat. When a lot of blood is sent to the skin for cooling, and the person becomes inactive enough to allow blood to pool in the legs, the heart may not receive enough blood to supply the brain. Once the person is in a horizontal position, consciousness is regained quickly.

Hemoglobin -- Hemoglobin is a crystallizable, conjugated protein consisting of an iron-containing pigment called heme and a simple protein, globin. It is the pigment of red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.

Herbs -- An often-used definition of herbs is any part of a plant which can be used as a medical treatment, nutrient, food seasoning or dye. However, this definition is too shortsighted to be relevant to the needs of otherwise healthy athletes whose major objective in life is to excel in their respective sports. You can use herbs to enhance your performance in many ways:

Herbs can cleanse your body. Many herbs contain powerful antioxidants whose ability to slow the aging process as well as aid in recovery has been well documented;
Herbs can have a normalizing effect, allowing the body to both recuperate from and adapt to the intense stresses of workouts and competition;
Herbs can have great nutritional value. Many herbs are high in vitamins and minerals which you as an athlete need at higher levels due to your extremely active lifestyle or dietary limitations;
Herbs can raise your energy levels;
Herbs can stimulate your immune system;
Herbs can also stimulate other systems such as your endocrine system, which plays a part in ALL bodily functions, including muscle tissue repair an growth;
Herbs can add seasoning to bland, low fat food.
While the list of herbs is far too extensive to include in this glossary of training and nutrition terms (only a few of the more popular herbs are mentioned), It is nonetheless useful to list the types of herbs. The following classes of herbs are traditionally used by trained herbalists to distinguish the multvariate uses of herbs:

Adaptogens.

Adaptogens help the body cope with stress through biochemical support of the adrenal glands. The term "adaptogen" was coined by researchers to describe the action of a substance that helps to increase resistance to adverse influences, both physical and environmental; a cure - all. To be a true adaptogen the substance must be 1) safe for daily use, 2) increase the body’s resistance to a wide variety of factors, and 3) have a normalizing action in the body. Adaptogens are useful for otherwise healthy individuals to help adapt to stresses such as an increasing work load, as well as illness or injury. Adaptogens provide both a tonic support to help the body normalize (return to homeostasis) as well as providing primary medical treatment.

Adaptogens work best over time. Adaptogenic herbs gently and efficiently "coax" your body into a far more strategic position for maintaining improved growth, recovery and repair for the months of hard training you are about to enter. The first step is to prepare your body for better use of supplements and dietary intake. This is done through a "cleansing" formula for your kidneys, liver, colon, and blood. Step two is to improve your body’s wound-healing (restorative and recovery) ability. The final step is to maximize your body’s adaptive responses to the stresses of training, a part of which involves boosting immune function. One of the most well - known adaptogens is Siberian ginseng. Other herbs such as chaparral, dandelion root, aloe vera, echinacea, yellow dock, and golden seal also have adaptogenic properties.
 

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Alteratives.

Alteratives work by gradually restoring the proper functioning of the body. One main function of alteratives is neutralizing toxins in the blood. Indeed, an alternative name for alteratives is "blood cleansers." But because alteratives also help the kidneys, liver, lungs skin and other systems remove toxins with their restorative properties, the term "blood cleanser" is not complete. Some herbs with alterative properties include nettles, cleavers, burdock, dandelion, yellow dock, red clover, chaparral and Oregon grapes.

Anti-catarrhals.

Anti-catarrhals help your body get rid of excess mucous from the lungs, sinuses and throat. Athletes engaged in severe aerobic activities or challenged by extreme bouts against the anaerobic threshold (to the point where further movement is impossible without more oxygen being available) are clearly aided by anti-catarrhal herbs such as golden rod, elder tree, and eyebright.

Anti-inflammatories.

Anti-inflammatories reduce swelling in various bodily tissues. Most herbs with anti-inflammatory properties contain volatile oils. These herbs can work by relaxing the nervous system and muscle spasms, attacking bacteria or by increasing blood flow to the affected area. In doing so, the herb may also relieve pain. This is clearly a category of herbs of extreme interest to athletes. Remember, no healing or recovery is possible until you first reduce swelling and inflammation. Some herbs with anti-inflammatory properties include chamomile, lemon balm, peppermint, meadowsweet, willow bark, bogbean and wild yams.

Anti-microbials / anti-bacterials.

Micro-organisms and bacteria can disrupt the body’s systems and cause illness. By stimulating the body’s immune system, or by direct attack, anti-microbials and anti-bacterials keep these pathogens at bay. Chaparral, echinacea, garlic and goldenseal are herbs with excellent anti-microbial and anti-bacterial actions.

Anti-spasmodics.

Ant-spasmodics relieve muscle cramps by either alleviating muscular tension, nervous tension, or psychological tension. Another class of herbs offering great benefit for athletes. Black haw, grindelia, lobelia, angelica and peppermint all have anti-spasmodic properties.

Astringents.

Astringents tighten or bond tissues together by binding protein molecules. This causes contraction and firming of tissues. This effect is useful for cuts or abrasions (common problems with all athletes), sinusitis and diarrhea. Herbs with an astringent property include white oak, pipsissewa, horse chestnut, witch hazel, agramony and cranesbill.

Bitters.

This classification of herbs got it’s name not by what they do, but how they taste. Yet it is the taste itself which helps the body detoxify itself! The bitter sensation triggers a hormonal response in the digestive system which leads to the production of digestive juices and bile, as well as detoxifying the liver. Athletes having a hard time gaining weight because of poor appetite or poor digestion can benefit greatly from the use of bitters before each of their 5-6 daily meals. Bitters can also stimulate intestinal healing. Herbs with bitter properties include gentian, citrus peel, angelica, barberry, burdock, dandelion, mugwort, whorehound, eleecampane, tumeric and ginseng.

Calmatives / Carminatives

The aromatic volatile oils found in calmatives reduce inflammation in the intestinal walls. By doing this, they promote proper functioning of the digestive system as well as relieve intestinal pain and removing gas. Calmatives’ effects on the digestive system will promote better absorbtion of the nutrients you need as well as help relieve the upset stomach you have before competition. Fennel and rosemary are a couple of herbs that have calmative effects.

Like calmatives, carminatives have strong effects on the digestive system. They ease gas, indigestion, intestinal cramping, and can also stimulate your appetite. Cumin, fennel, ginger and peppermint are a few carminatives.

Demulcents.

Demulcents have an anti-inflammatory and soothing effect on the kidneys, urinary bladder and mucus membranes. They also help moisten these tissues. When the kidneys and urinary bladder become irritated, proper waste elimination is compromised. The mucus membranes found in the throat and nasal capacity also can become inflamed as well as dry and irritated, which effects breathing. Comfrey, licorice, marshmallow, slippery elm are all demulcents.
 

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Diaphoretics.

Diaphoretics cause you to perspire, thus eliminating toxins through the skin. By dilating capillaries near the skin’s surface (which also improves overall blood circulation) or relaxing pores toxins more easily pass into sweat glands where they are discarded once you shower. Athletes who have problems sweating may benefit from such herbs. Diaphoretics also support kidney function, where toxins are separated from the blood and discarded in the urine. Some herbs with a diaphoretic action include basil, chrysanthemum, ginger, lemon balm, and peppermint.

Diuretics.

By increasing the production and removal of urine, diuretics also eliminate toxins and waste from the body. Ancient herbal tradition has it that diuretics include any herb which is beneficial to the urinary system’s overall health. Many herbs including parsley root, uva ursi, corn silk, alfalfa, juniper berries, artichokes, asparagus, astragalus, buchu, burdock, celery, chaparral, dandelion, kava kava and sarsaparilla are known to have diuretic properties. Diuretics should not be used long term and definitely not during intense exercise as they can rob you of several minerals as well as bodily fluids (especially from your blood), both of which are vital during exercise.

Expectorants

Expectorants are commonly referred to as herbs that help the lungs. While they do indeed help your lungs, they do so by removing phlegm and excess fluid from them as well as the throat. Expectorants are also useful for bronchitis and ashram. Such herbs included coltsfoot, elecampane and mullein.

In addition to expectorants, other herbs can help optimize your lungs health. Mullein, besides being an expectorant, also serves as a lung tonic and anti-inflammatory. Other herbs include sundew, wild cherry bark, skunk cabbage and bloodroot.

Hepatics.

Hepatics aid liver function. The liver is an important organ for many reasons; among them is waste removal. Athletes experience ammonia toxicity resulting from the breakdown of protein for energy. The liver eliminates ammonia. Athletes suffer from a buildup of lactic acid resulting from the breakdown of glycogen during exercise. The liver eliminates lactic acid. Some ill-advised athletes sometimes resort to the use of illegal anabolic steroids, which are potentially harmful to the liver. You get the picture. Athletes definitely need a peak performing liver! Hepatics can help increase bile production and waste removal as well as detoxifying the liver. Barberry, dandelion root, Oregon grapes, milk thistle, balmony and gentian are some useful hepatics.

Hypotensives.

Hypotensives help to normalize blood pressure. Obviously, this is an important category for those who have high blood pressure. Hawthorn, linden blossoms, ginkgo biloba, garlic and motherwort are all excellent hypotensives.

Hypnotics.

Do not be misled by the term "hypnotic"; you will not be put into a trance, put to sleep for hours or begin to hallucinate. Hypnotics gently help you fall asleep quicker and improve the quality of sleep. Proper sleep patterns are hard to come by for some -- traveling to games, the stress of performing well, the stress student athletes have as a result of balancing academics and athletics, and numerous other causes can keep you awake at night. Obviously, energy levels are negatively affected from lack of adequate sleep, but it also affects growth hormone output and recovery from workouts and injuries. Herbs such as valerian, California poppy, lobelia, skullcap, lemon balm, peppermint and Siberian ginseng can all calm you down for a night’s rest!

Laxatives.

Laxatives are a multi-million dollar business for the pharmaceutical industry. Many herbs also serve as laxatives and are much gentler on the body than commercial brands. They’re also a lot less expensive. By stimulating bowel movement, wastes and toxins are removed from the body. With them, however, bodily fluids and vital minerals are also lost. So, as it is with diuretics, caution should be taken when taking laxative herbs. Do not prolong your use of laxatives. Some natural laxatives include cascara sagrada, dandelion root, psyllium seeds, aloe vera, boneset and damiana.

Male and Female Reproductive.

Proper functioning of your reproductive system will do far more for your athletic career than continue your legacy of athletic achievement! By normalizing your hormonal balance an array of health benefits can be gained. Take strong note of this: your hormonal balance is strongly effected by your reproductive system, and hormones affect all functions and systems of the body! Therefore, herbs that benefit the reproductive system can ease menopause, moodiness, coïtusual dysfunction as well as promote proper hormonal balance, which in turn may 1) enhance tissue repair, 2) improve hepatic function (liver), 3) provide more efficient digestion and assimilation, 4 amplify energy levels, metabolic functions and brain activity.

CAUTION! When dealing with the hormonal balance of your body, great care should be taken. Even a slight change of this balance can cause an array of problems. Chasteberry, for example, contains phytochemicals that promote progesterone and estrogen balance (normally regarded as female hormones). This should not be taken by adolescent males, but can be useful for females and older men.

For Males: Wild yams, black cohosh, saw palmetto, damiana, chasteberry, St. John’s wort, wild oats (did you see this one coming ), and those herbs with bitter properties have positive effects on the male reproductive system.

For Females: Chasteberry, blue cohosh, black cohosh and bitter herbs have a positive effect on the female reproductive system.
 

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Nervines.

Nervines have beneficial effects on the nervous system -- the brain, central nervous system, neuromuscular system, as well as the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (those that bring impulses to and from your bodies organs and systems). Herbs that can help your nervous system include oats, skullcap, St. John’s wort, motherwort, lobelia and valerian.

Rubefacients.

Rubefacients stimulate blood flow near the skin when applied topically. Because of this action, rubefacients are useful for most athletes because they promote healing and reduce the symptoms of arthritis, joint and muscle pain. Black pepper, cayenne and mustard are listed among the many known rubefacients.

Tonics.

Tonics vitalize and nourish either one organ of the body or the entire body itself. The term "tonic" may bring visions of "snake oils" sold out of the back of covered wagons by peddlers traveling from town to town in the old west. While many such tonics may have been worthless, many weren’t. Chances are, people back in the old west were as eager for a quick solution to their ailments as they are today. Still, many herbs work remarkably well over time by gently coaxing your body back to good health or by aiding in maintaining it.

Unlike chemical drugs of today, tonics help prevent health problems and can be taken with very little worry of side effects or overdose. While tonics should be used in times of good health, they can be especially helpful if signs of illness start to show up, but the illness has not yet come on. As you can imagine, many herbs can be considered tonics.

Vulneraries.

This is a category of herbs that those of you involved in contact sports will definitely want to check out! Vulneraries promote healing of cuts, abrasions and bruises, relieves tissue irritations, and can also have promote blood flow to areas affected by bruises and inflamed tissues. Arica, calendula and chickweed are known vulneraries.



High blood pressure -- See hypertension.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) -- A type of lipoprotein that seems to provide protection against the buildup of athersclerotic fat deposits in the arteries. Exercise seems to increase the HDL fraction of total cholesterol. HDL contains high levels of protein and low levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. Cf. lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein.

Homeostasis -- The tendency of the body to maintain its internal systems in balance. Example: A buildup of carbon dioxide increases the respiration rate to eliminate it and draw in more oxygen.

Hormones -- Hormones are chemical substances which originate in an organ, gland, or body part, and are conveyed by the blood to affect functions in other parts of the body.

Horsepower -- A workrate measure equal to 746 watts, or about 550 foot-pounds per second.

Human Growth Hormone (hGH) -- A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to various stressful stimuli such as heat, starvation and intense physical stress (e.g., exercise), as well as by an innate pulsatile periodicity. The principal functions of hGH are to stimulate anabolism and to mobilize stored fat (triglyceruides) for energy, thus sparing muscle glycogen.

Hydroxycitrate (HCA) -- HCA (sometimes referred to as hydroxycitric acid) is a natural fruit acid found in abundance in the Brindall berry, the fruit of the Garcinia Cambogia plant (found in India primarily). HCA is cited in the research as able to inhibit lipid (fat) synthesis. Possible mechanisms for this effect may be 1) an appetite suppressant response due to enhanced gluconeogenesis which would promote a feeling of satiety, and 2) inhibition of certain enzymes necessary for biosynthesizing fat.

Hyperglycemia -- Abnormally high level of glucose in the blood (high blood sugar). The clinical hallmark of diabetes mellitus. Usually defined as a blood sugar value exceeding 140 mg/dl.

Hyperplasia (muscle splitting) -- A controversial subject among sports scientists regarding the possibility of muscle fibers to actually split, giving more strength from increased contractile potential and/or connective tissue.

Hypertension -- Persistent high blood pressure. Readings as low as 140/90 millimeters of mercury are considered a threshold for high blood pressure by some authorities. Cf. blood pressure.

Hyperthermia -- Body temperatures exceeding normal. See heat cramps, exhaustion, heat

stroke, heat syncope. Cf. hypothermia.
 

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Hypertonic -- Describes a solution concentrated enough to draw water out of body cells.

Cf. osmolarity.

Hypertrophy (general) -- An enlargement of a body part or organ by the increase in size of the

cells that make it up. Cf. atrophy.

Hypertrophy (muscle)-- Increase in both gross muscle size as well as individual muscle cell size resulting from training (especially weight training); due to the adaptive process whereby the muscles add more mitochondria, sarcoplasm, myofibrils, interstitial substances such as water, fat, satellite cells, etc. in response to highly specific forms of stress.

Hypervitaminosis -- Undesirable symptoms caused by an excess of certain (typically fat soluble) vitamins.

Hypoglycemia -- Hypoglycemia literally means "low blood glucose level". There are two general categories of this disorder: fasting (or spontaneous) and reactive.

In fasting hypoglycemia, serum glucose levels are low in the fasting state (for example, before breakfast). This form of hypoglycemia is relatively uncommon and is not what most people generally refer to when they claim to have "hypoglycemic symptoms".

In reactive hypoglycemia, fasting glucose levels are normal. They become abnormally low only in reaction to the increased serum levels of glucose which follow the ingestion of a meal.

Hypothermia -- Body temperature below normal. Usually due to exposure to cold temperatures, especially after exhausting ready energy supplies. Cf. hyperthermia.

Hypotonic -- Describes a solution dilute enough to allow its water to be absorbed by

body cells. Cf. osmolarity.

Hypoxia -- Insufficient oxygen flow to the tissues, even though blood flow is adequate. Cf. ischemia.

Hypnotherapy -- An effective method to shed accumulated negativity and self-doubt that can limit confidence and performance potential.







Iliac crest -- The upper, wide portion of the hip bone.

Impulse-inertial training -- A system originally designed for NASA space stations (where there's no gravity -- dumbbells and barbells would be useless in space) whereby a moving, weighted sled is alternately moved very rapidly back and forth on a set of tracks in order to effectively improve starting strength (see starting strength).

Infarction -- Death of a section of tissue from the obstruction of blood flow (ischemia) to the area. Cf. myocardial infarction.

Inflammation -- Body's local response to injury. Acute inflammation is characterized by pain, with heat, redness, swelling and loss of function. Uncontrolled swelling may cause further damage to tissues at the injury site.

Informed consent -- A procedure for obtaining a client's signed consent to a fitness center's

prescription and leadership of his/her program. Includes a description of the objectives and procedures, with associated benefits and risks, stated in plain language, with a consent statement and signature line in a single document.
 

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Inertia -- The tendency of an object to remain in its current state (in motion or at rest).

Inosine -- Inosine is a naturally-occurring compound found in the body that contributes to strong heart muscle contraction and blood flow in the coronary arteries. As a supplement taken before and during workouts and competition, it stimulates enzyme activity in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells for improved regeneration of ATP. What this means in training terms is that you'll be able to get a rep or two more out of yourself in each set. It means that you'll be able to do your wind sprints with greater stamina. Better workouts equals better gains.

Inositol -- A B complex vitamin. Combines with choline to form lecithin, protecting against the fatty hardening of arteries and cholesterol buildup. Important in the nutrition of brain cells. Promotes healthy hair. No RDA. Dietary sources: liver, brewer's yeast, dried lima beans, beef brains and heart, cantaloupe.

Insertion -- The attachment of a muscle to the more moveable or distal (farther from the center of the body) structure.

Insulin -- Insulin is a peptide hormone made of two polypeptide chains, and is secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas. The function of insulin is to increase the ability of certain organs, such as muscles and the liver, to utilize glucose and amino acids. Insulin also increases the total quantity of protein in the body by increasing the flow of amino acids into cells, accelerating messenger RNA translation, and increasing DNA transcription to form more RNA.

Insulin is essential for the proper metabolism and proper maintenance level of blood sugar. Secretion is primarily dependent upon the concentration of blood glucose, an increase of blood sugar bringing about an increase in the secretion of insulin. Inadequate secretion of insulin results in improper metabolism or carbohydrates and fats and brings on diabetes characterized by glucose accumulating in the blood and wastefully excreting in the urine. Various forms of insulin may be prepared and administered to temporarily treat a diabetic individual.

Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF-I & IGF-II) -- IGF-I and IGF-II are theorized to be liberated into the interstitial spaces surrounding muscle cells (especially Type IIb fibers) damaged by severe stress (especially eccentric contractions). Their collective function is to ensure fusion between the nearby satellite cells with the damaged fiber, thereby decreasing that fiber's proneness to injury. It is theorized to be the single most contributory factor in muscle hypertrophy.

Insulinomimetics -- There are several herbs that have been widely used for centuries for their apparent insulinomimetic value:

Pterocarpus marsupium, long used by Ayurvedic medical practitioners in India for treating diabetes, is believed to be capable of regenerating damaged cells in the pancreas (where insulin is synthesized).

Momordica charantia contains insulin-like polypeptides which have been shown to help reduce high blood sugar. And, trigonella foenum-graecum (also known as fenugreek seeds) as well as vaccinum myrtillus (blueberry leaves) are both regarded as anti-hyperglycemic agents as well.

Allium cepa and allium sativum -- specially prepared extracts from the common onion and garlic plants -- have been clinically shown to reduce blood glucose by competing with insulin for insulin-inactivating compounds, thereby increasing free insulin in your body. These powerful botanicals are reported to 1) have antihypertensive effects (lower blood pressure), 2) be capable of reducing blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol), and 3) provide general cardiovascular benefits.

Not all garlic is the same, however. It has to be aged in a specific manner. One special method of ageing garlic, developed by Wakunaga of America Company (known as Kyolic garlic), preserves a compound called S-allyl-cystein. This compound has been well-researched and shown to have potent lowering effects on both blood lipids (fat) and blood glucose, while at the same time increasing insulin.
 

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Intensity -- The rate of performing work; power. A function of energy output per unit of time. Examples: Aerobic exercise may be measured in o(V,.)O2, METs, or heart rate; short-duration anaerobic exercise may be measured in foot-pounds per minute or other units of work measurement. Intensity, along with duration and frequency, affect the effectiveness of exercise. In gym parlance, intensity refers to the difficulty of a workout or workout schedule. Intensity is often erroneously defined as how close you are to your maximum limit strength level in the amount of weight you are using in a given exercise movement. But to athletes other than bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts, intensity is defined as "psych." There is a need for a clear definition. (See related concepts, "Periodization" and "Recovery.") One's training "intensity" may be (but not necessarily) increased by:

· amplification of mental effort -- getting "psyched"

· approaching a game or training movement with maximum mental focus

· approaching your training or competition with a burning passion, as though it were your LIFE

· adding reps

· adding weight

· decreasing rest between reps

· decreasing rest between sets

· increasing the number of exercises per bodypart

· increasing the total number of exercises or bodyparts trained at one session

· increasing the number of training sessions per day

· increasing the speed of movement

· increasing the amount of work done at the anaerobic threshold (maximum pain tolerance)

· increasing the amount of eccentric work your muscles are required to perform.

· increasing the "ballistic" nature of the transition portion of the lift or movement. (For example, quickly rearing back to throw (activating the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs while at the same time violently pre-stretching the tissues of the shoulder such that you avail yourself of the natural viscoelasticity of the tissues surrounding the shoulder) and then reversing the direction (throwing) involves increased "ballistic" stress) .

Interval training -- An exercise session in which the intensity and duration of exercise are

consciously alternated between harder and easier work. Often used to improve aerobic capacity and/or anaerobic endurance in exercisers who already have a base of endurance training.

Intramuscular\intracellular friction -- The natural friction between and within muscle fibers caused by contraction (especially eccentric contraction). Leads to some reduction in strength output. The greatest amount of friction occurs in eccentric movements, such as the lowering of weights, where the muscle lengthens against resistance. This can be very damaging to contractile components inside fibers, and to the fibers themselves (called "microtrauma").
 

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Iodine -- An essential element for the function of the thyroid gland, which regulates metabolism and energy. RDA: 150 micrograms. Dietary sources: All seafood, kelp.

Ion -- An ion is an atom or molecule which carries an electric charge; it can be either a cation or an anion. The most important cations in the body are sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium (the electrolytes). The most important anions in the body are bicarbonate, chloride, phosphate and sulfate.

Iron -- Combines with protein and copper to make hemoglobin, a pigment that colors the blood red and which carries oxygen through the bloodstream from the lungs to all bodily tissue. Also forms myoglobin, which transports oxygen in muscle tissue for use in fueling contractions. Deficiency is common in athletes. Without enough iron, you cannot train. Iron is easily lost through sweat, urine, feces and menstrual flow. Runners in particular are suspected of inefficient absorption of dietary iron. RDA: 10 mg. (men), 18 mg. (women). Dietary sources: liver, oysters, lean meat, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, dried fruits, legumes.

Ischemia -- Inadequate blood flow to a body part, caused by constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel. Cf. hypoxia.

Isokinetic contraction -- A muscle contraction against a resistance that moves at a constant

velocity, so that the maximum force of which the muscle is capable throughout the range of motion may be applied. Cf. isotonic contraction.

Isokinetic exercise -- Exercise equipment using accommodating resistance technology. For example, Keiser equipment uses compressed air to provide accomodating resistance. With this form of isokinetic movement, the harder you push the harder the machine resists, providing the net effect of controlling the speed of movement (see Accomodating Resistance).

Isometric Contraction -- A muscular contraction in which the muscle retains its length while increasing in tension, but no movement occurs. Also called static contraction.

Isotonic Contraction -- A concentric muscular contraction in which the load remains constant but the tension varies with the joint angle. Also called dynamic contraction.
 

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Jerk -- The part of the Olympic lift known as the "clean and jerk," where the lifter drives the barbell from his or her shoulders overhead to a locked position.

Jerk training -- A training technique involving carefully applied repetitive ballistic-type movements to the tissues surrounding a joint for the purpose of "deinhibition" -- preventing the protective cessation of muscle contraction. The Golgi tendon organ is, in theory, prevented from sending an inhibitory signal to the central nervous system upon being maximally stimulated by repetitive jerky stress. Adaptive changes in surrounding connective tissues is theorized to occur in order to prervent injury to the tissues being stressed.

Joints -- A joint is formed where two bones come together. Not all joints have the same range of motion, and some joints don't move at all. The range of motion of a joint is limited by the structure of the bone and the attachment of muscle to bone. Described below are some important structures found in a joint.

- Cartilage is a firm, elastic, flexible white material. It is found at the ends of ribs, between vertebrae (discs), at joint surfaces, and in the nose and ears. Cartilage provides shock absorption, a smooth surface between adjacent bones, and structure.

- Ligaments are relatively inelastic bands of white, fibrous tissue. They connect one bone to another at a joint.

- Tendons are extensions of the muscle fibers. They are slightly more elastic than ligaments, but cannot shorten as muscles do. they connect muscle to bone.

- Bursa are fluid-filled pads that absorb shock and provide a smooth surface upon which tendons move over bone.

- Synovial fluid is a very viscous material that lubricates the working parts of a joint.

Joint capsules -- A sac-like enclosure around a joint that holds synovial fluid to lubricate

the joint
 

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K-O
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Ketone -- Keytone bodies are produced as intermediate products of fat metabolism. they are normally created in limited amounts when fat is oxidized. However, in drastic conditions where carbohydrate is insufficient or unavailable for energy needs such as starvation or untreated diabetes, excessive amounts of fat are oxidized and ketone bodies accumulate. This condition is known as ketosis.

Ketosis -- An elevated level of ketone bodies in the tissues. Seen in sufferers of starvation or diabetes, and a symptom brought about in dieters on very low carbohydrate diets.

Kilocalorie -- Kilocalorie (kcal) is a unit of measurement used in metabolic studies, being the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. It is 1,000 times larger than the small calorie used in chemistry and physics. The term is used in nutrition to express the fuel or energy value of food.

Kilogram (kg) -- A unit of weight equal to 2.204623 pounds; 1,000 grams (g).

Kilogram-meters (kgm) -- The amount of work required to lift one kilogram one meter.

Kilopond-meters (kpm) -- Equivalent to kilogram-meters, in normal gravity.

Kinesiology -- Study of human musculoskeletal movement, also referred to as biomechanics.

Kinematics and Kinetics -- Kinematics is defined as the geometry of motion, which includes displacement, velocity, and acceleration without regard for the forces acting on a body. Kinetics, however, concerns itself with understanding the dynamics of the forces acting on a body.

Knee wraps -- Elastic strips used to wrap knees for better support when performing squats and dead lifts.

Krebs Cycle -- Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) refers to a complicated series of reactions by which fragments from any of the energy nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) are completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy for the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is the final common pathway for all nutrient metabolites involved in energy production, and provides more than 90% of the body's energy. This is the oxidative portion of energy production where short carbon chains from the breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and protein are broken down and the energy is used to form more ATP. Oxygen is involved in this phase of metabolism where they combine with hydrogen atoms to form water. This takes place in the mitochondria.


L-carnitine -- Neither an amino acid nor a vitamin, L-carnitine is a derivative of hydroxybutyric acid. It is naturally obtained from red meat, and helps release stored bodyfat (triglycerides) into the bloodstream for use in cellular energy processing. Its physiological role is to transport long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy production. This is believed to improve one’s fat metabolism (lower body fat level) as well as long-term energy level. Research has also shown L-carnitine to have a value in treating certain cardiovascular disorders, including hardening of the arteries.

Lactate -- Lactic acid.

Lactic acid -- A byproduct of glucose and glycogen metabolism in anaerobic muscle energetics. A minute accumulation causes muscular fatigue and pain, and retards contraction.

Lactic acid is carried by the blood to the liver, where it is reconverted to glucose and returned as blood glucose to the muscles. It is this elevation of blood lactic acid in sustained strenuous exercise, such as in marathon running, which results in muscle fatigue and pain. Recovery follows when enough oxygen gets to the muscle, part of the lactic acid being oxidized and most of it then being built up once more into glycogen. The metabolic cooperation between contracting skeletal muscle and the liver to support active muscle work is called the Cori cycle.

Lactose -- Lactose is a disaccharide of milk which on hydrolysis yields glucose and galactose. Bacteria can convert it into lactic acid and butyric acid, as in the souring of milk. It is used in infant feeding formulas, in other foods and as an osmotic laxative and diuretic. Lactose is not tolerated in many persons after weaning, owing to a reduced lactase activity.
 

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Lats -- Short for latissimus dorsi, the large muscles of the back that are the prime movers for adduction, extension and hyperextension of the shoulder joints.

Lean body mass -- All of you, except your fat. Includes bone, brain, organs, skin, nails, muscle, all bodily tissues. Approximately 50-60% of lean body mass is water.

Lean body weight -- The weight of the body, less the weight of its fat.

Lever -- A rigid object (bone), hinged at one point (joint) to which forces (via muscle contraction or resistance) are applied at two other points. A lever transmits and modifies force or motion, and has three parts: 1) a fulcrum, 2) a force arm and 3) a resistance arm. There are three classes of levers, depending on the location of the three parts relative to each other.

Ligament -- The fibrous, connective tissue that connects bone to bone, or bone to cartilage, to hold together and support joints. Cf. tendon.

Limit Strength -- Absolute strength enhanced by hypnosis, electrotherapy, ergogenic substances of any form (including nutritional supplements or drugs) or other techniques. Such aids increase the potential for strength above normal capacity. Absolute strength is reached solely through training.

Lipid -- A number of body substances that are fat or fat-like.

Lipoprotein -- Combination of a lipid and protein. Cholesterol is transported in the blood plasma by lipoproteins. Cf. high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein.

Longitudinal study -- A study which observes the same subjects over a period of time. Cf.

cross-sectional study.

Lordosis -- The forward curving of the spine at the neck (cervical spine) and lower back (lumbar spine). Often used to refer to an abnormally increased curvature of the lumbar spine.

Low blood sugar -- See hypoglycemia.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -- A lipoprotein carrying a high level of cholesterol, moderate levels of protein and low levels of triglycerides. Associated with the building of othersclerotic deposits in the arteries. Cf. lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein.

Lower abs -- Slang for abdominal muscles below the navel. Conventional training wisdom holds that one can "isolate" the lower from the upper abs through leg raises or reverse crunchers. In reality, when the abdominals contract, the contractile forcee is generated throuhout the entire abdominal wall.

Lumbar -- Pertaining to the lower back, defined by the five lumbar vertibrae, just above the sacrum.







Magnesium -- A pivotal mineral important to protein synthesis, energy production, muscle contractions and a strong heart muscle. Essential for metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and vitamin C. Chronic muscle cramps is a typical sign of a shortage. RDA: 350 mg. (men), 300 mg. (women). Dietary sources: figs, lemons, grapefruit, yellow corn, almonds, nuts, seeds, dark green vegetables.

Maintenance load -- The intensity, duration and frequency of exercise required to maintain an

individual's present level of fitness.

Manganese -- A key enzyme activator. Also vital to the formation of thyroid and reproductive hormones, normal skeletal development, muscle reflexes, and the proper digestion and utilization of food. No RDA. Dietary sources: whole grains, egg yolks, nuts, seeds and green vegetables.

Maria Thistle -- The active compound in Maria Thistle is silymarin. It is known to be 1) a potent hepatoprotector and antihepatotoxic agent (thereby restoring normal metabolic function to the liver), 2) promotes cellular regeneration via increased protein synthesis, 3) aids in protecting the kidneys, and 4) acts as a powerful antioxidant principally through its sparing effects on glutathione (which also probably accounts for its potency in improving liver function).

Max -- Maximum effort for one repetition of a weight training exercise. Also expressed as one's "1-RM" or "one rep max." Max o(V,.)O2 See maximal oxygen uptake.

Maximal heart rate -- The highest heart rate of which an individual is capable. A broad rule of

thumb for estimating maximal heart rate is 220 (beats per minute) minus the person's age (in years). Cf. graded exercise test.

Maximal oxygen uptake -- The highest rate of oxygen consumption of which a person is capable.

Usually expressed in milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. Also called maximal aerobic power, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen intake. Cf. o(V,.)O2 max.
 

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Maximal tests -- An exercise test to exhaustion or to levels of oxygen uptake or heart rate that cannot increase further with additional work loads. Cf. graded exercise test.

Medical history -- A list of a person's previous illnesses, present conditions, symptoms, medications and health risk factors. Used to prescribe appropriate exercise programs. Persons whose responses indicate they may be in a high-risk category should be referred for medical evaluation before

beginning an exercise program.

Medical referral -- Recommending that a person see a qualified medical professional to review

their health status and determine whether medical treatment is needed or whether a particular course of exercise and/or diet change is safe.

Mesomorph -- A person whose physique features powerful musculature.

Met -- A measure of energy output equal to the resting metabolic rate of a resting subject. Assumed to be equal to an oxygen uptake of 3.5 milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute, or a caloric expenditure of 50 Kcalories per square meter of body surface per hour. Hard exercise, for example, requires up to eight METs of energy expenditure, which equals eight times the resting energy requirement.

Metabolism -- The total of all the chemical and physical processes by which the body builds and maintains itself (anabolism) and by which it breaks down its substances for the production of energy (catabolism).

Metabolite -- Metabolite is any substance which forms as a by-product of the catabolism, growth, or anabolism of living tissue.

Military press -- Pressing a barbell from upper chest upward in standing or sitting position.

Minerals -- There are 96 times more minerals in the body than vitamins. As vitamins, they are necessary for life itself and combine with other basic components of food to form enzymes. Minerals are ingested through food and water. Many minerals are deficient in the diet because of mineral-poor agricultural soil, the result of intensive farming and long-term use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Minimum daily requirement (MDR) -- The minimum amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals considered necessary to maintain health. Cf. recommended daily allowance, optimal daily allowance.
 

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Mitochondria -- Mitochondria are the rod-shape organelles found in the cytoplasm of cells. They are the source of energy in the cell and are involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism.

Moment arm -- The perpendicular distance from the line of pull of a muscle to the axis of rotation.

Moment Of Force -- See Torque.

Monounsaturated fat -- Dietary fat whose molecules have one double bond open to receive more

hydrogen. Found in many nuts, olive oil, and avocados. Cf. polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat.

Motor neuron -- A nerve cell which conducts impulses from the central nervous system to a

group of muscle fibers to produce movement.

Motor unit -- The basic unit of movement: a motor nerve fiber and all of the muscle fibers it supplies. In the quadriceps muscle, one neuron can activate as many as 1,000 fibers. In the eye, where great precision is required, one nerve cell may control only 3 fibers.

Motor unit recruitment -- One of the factors affecting strength. Refers to your ability to get maximum stimulation through the nervous system to trigger the maximum amount of contractile force through maximum motor unit recruitment. This can be built up over time through heavy resistance and explosive strength training.

Muscle -- Tissue consisting of fibers organized into bands or bundles that contract to perform bodily movement.

Muscle fiber -- Synonymous with muscle cell. See fiber.

Muscle group -- Specific muscles that act together at the same joint to produce a movement.

Muscle fiber arrangement -- Long fibers are created for large movements and speed rather than strength. Short fibers are designed for strength with a lesser movement capability. Knowledge of fiber arrangement can help you train muscle groups in a scientific manner.

Muscle pull (strain) -- Major or minor damage to muscles from excessive stretching or use. The key to avoiding muscle pulls is proper conditioning and strict adherence to a thorough program of warm-up and cool-down.

Muscle spasm -- Sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group.

Muscle spindle -- The "computer" of muscle tissue, a modified fiber which responds reflexively to mental impulses and muscle movement such as stretching. Measures and delivers the quantity of muscle force needed to perform a given action. Rapid stretching of the muscle, for example, results in messages being sent to the nervous system to contract the muscle, thereby limiting the stretch. Cf. Golgi tendon organ, proprioceptor.

Muscle tone -- , "Muscle tone" or "tonus" refers to the degree of resting "tension" in a muscle. Weight training results in a greater number of muscle fiber "firing" while at rest. It's Mother nature's way of keeping your muscles in a "ready" state to contract more forcefully and instantaneously if needed. The partial contraction results in your muscles feeling "tight" or "hard" to the touch.
 

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Musculotendinous -- Pertaining to or composed of muscle and tendon.

Myocardial infarction -- A common form of heart attack, in which the blockage of a coronary artery causes the death of a part of the heart muscle. Cf. infarction.

Myofibril -- The functional units within muscle fibers that cause contractions. The more you have, the greater your strength. Myofibrillarization -- increasing myofibrils -- is achieved with the use of heavy weight training.

Myofilaments -- The elements of a muscle cell which comprise myofibrils that actually shorten (thereby providing contractile force) by sliding across one another via action of "cross bridges." They are comprised of the proteins actin and myosin.

Myoglobin -- An iron-containing protein responsible for oxygen transport and storage in muscle tissue, similar to hemoglobin in blood.

Myoneural Junction -- The connection of a neuron to a muscle fiber.

Myosin -- The most abundant protein (68%) in muscle fiber. It is the main constituent of the thick contractile filaments which overlap with the thin actin filaments in the biochemical sequence that produces contractions.

Myositis -- Inflammation of a skeletal muscle.

Myositis ossificans -- The deposit of bony materials in the muscle. Bruises from contact sports

may result in this condition. Severe bruises should be iced, and evaluated by a physician.









Nautilus -- Variable resistance-type exercise machine which attempts to match the amount of resistance with the user's force output. Arthur Jones, developer of Nautilus equipment in the 1970s is considered one of the true pioneers of fitness technology. He coined the term "Nautilus" because of the sea shell appearance of his earlier machines' cams. However, the concept of varying resistance by using offset cams was invented and in use during the 1800s in Europe. Jones' marketing strategy involved his widely adopted "one set to failure" principle. He disavowed it in the mid 80s, however (right after selling his business), and his legion of disciples (i.e., owners or sellers of his equipment) all but vanished.

Negative reps -- An eccentric contraction. One or two partners assist in lifting a weight up to 20 - 40% heavier than an individual could normally lift. Once hoisted to the extended position, the weight is slowly lowered without help. This type of exercise is extremely damaging to connective tissue, and (according to the "cataclysmic" theory of overtraining) is the elemental factor in overtraining and cumulative microtrauma.

Neuromuscular re-education (NMR) -- Therapy involving deep rolfing massage and neurological stimulation to eliminate painful strength- and movement-limiting adhesions and scar tissue in muscles caused by trauma. Developed by Drs. Gary Glum and Joseph Horrigan, Los Angeles chiropractors specializing in soft-tissue injuries in sports.

Neurotransmitter -- A biochemical that spans the gaps between nerve cells, transmitting an electrical impulse.

Nicotine -- Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the tobacco plant. Nicotine first stimulates the central nervous system, then depresses it. It is absorbed easily through the mucous membranes and the skin, and is highly toxic; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, twitching, and convulsions. Nicotine is used as an agricultural insecticide.

Nitrogen balance -- An estimate of the difference between nitrogen intake and output in the body to measure protein sufficiency. Derived by subtracting amount of urea nitrogen in a urine sample from an individual's total protein intake. If urea value is larger than protein intake, the nitrogen balance is negative, indicating that not enough protein was eaten to meet the body's nutritional needs. In this situation, muscle protein is sacrificed to provide additional protein to fund metabolic processes. Prolonged negative balance results in muscle wasting. Positive nitrogen balance is achieved by ingesting complete protein to meet the body's metabolic needs.
 

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Non-resistance training -- Training without weights in which you pit muscle strength against body weight to develop general and aerobic fitness. Includes mild running, calisthenics, jumping, skipping, swimming, and bicycling.

Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid -- NDGA (nor-di-hydro-guai-aretic acid) is the primary active constituent of the chaparral bush, which grows in southwestern USA (to over 1000 years old. It is widely known in the scientific community as a powerful antioxidant, and has the official designation as a "lipoxygenase inhibitor." Both research and folklore classify NDGA as effective in 1) cellular respiration, 2) analgesic activity, 3) anti-inflammatory activity, and 4) vasodepressant activity. These functions make NDGA a potent anti-ageing substance.

Nutriceutical -- Actually nothing more than a cross between the two words, "nutritional" and "pharmaceutical," a nutriceutical is any nutritional supplement designed for any specific clinical purpose(s). Thus, engineered foods such as Ensure, Enfamil, Nutriment, Met-Rx and IGF-33 are regarded as nutriceuticals. Due to FDA and FTC regulations, clinical or medical claims cannot be made for them. Thus, all are functionally (legally) on the market as foods for general consumption (or "health foods") to be used as "supplements" to nutrition (diet). Medical doctors frequently utilize these and other nutritional supplements in myriad clinical settings. See supplements, and see nutrition.

Nutrients -- Food and its specific elements and compounds that can be used by the body to build and maintain itself and to produce energy. Conventionally, this word refers to the macronutrients (water, protein, fats, carbohydrates) and the micronutrients (vitamins, minerals and trace elements) that are essential for energy and growth. On a legal (FDA) level, it specifically excludes substances for which claims are made (legitemately or illegitemately) for amelioration, cure or prevention of any disease entity or other clinical functions beyond growth and energy.
 

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Nutrition -- The programmatic use of nutrients

Obesity -- Excessive accumulation of body fat.

Obliques -- Short for external and/or internal obliques, the muscles to either side of abdominals that rotate and flex the trunk.

Octacosanol -- The active, energy-boosting component of wheat germ oil which is known to improve endurance, reaction time, and muscle glycogen storage. Taken as a supplement.

Olympic lifts -- The two weightlifting movements used in Olympic competitions: the snatch, and the clean and jerk. The military press was eliminated as a contested lift after the 1972 Olympics. See weightlifting.

Olympic set -- High-quality, precision-made set of weights used for competition. The bar is approximately 7' long. All moving parts have either brass bushings or bearings. Plates are machined for accurate weight.

One repetition maximum, 1 RM -- The maximum resistance with which a person can execute one repetition of an exercise movement. Cf. repetition.

ODA -- Optimal Daily Allowances. ODAs are applied to active people such as athletes and fitness enthusiasts whose nutritional requirement are beyond those of the normal (sedentary) people upon whom the FDA’s old RDA scale was devises.

Origin -- The attachment of a muscle to the less moveable or proximal (closer to the center of the body) structure.
 

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Ornithine -- Ornithine is produced in the urea cycle by splitting off the urea from arginine and is itself converted into citrulline. On decomposition it gives rise to putrescine. It has been demonstrated to be of value as a growth hormone stimulator when administered intravenously; there is no solid evidence that it stimulates growth hormone to a significant degree (enough to stimulate muscle growth) when taken orally.

Ornithine Alphaketoglutarate (OKG) -- OKG has been clinically shown to:

1) decrease muscle protein catabolism

2) improve nitrogen retention in muscle tissue

3) augment muscle tissue polyamine (PA) response

4) mediates an insulin increase

5) improves both protein synthesis and wound healing in muscles

6) promote anabolic (muscle building) processes

Clinically, it is successfully used in treating burn patients as well as traumatized, surgical and malnourished individuals. There's no doubt about its tissue-building properties in clinical use. While no studies have been reported on its use as a supplement for athletes, it's clearly logical to infer that OKG will aid them in gaining muscle mass and to greatly improve post-workout adaptation and recovery processes.
 

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Osmolarity -- The concentration of a solution participating in osmosis. (E.g., a sugar-water solution of high osmolarity is concentrated enough to draw water through the membranes of the digestive tract to dilute the sugar.) Cf. hypertonic, hypotonic.

Osmosis -- The movement of fluid through a membrane, tending to equalize the concentrations of the solutions on both sides. Cf. osmolarity.

Ossification -- The formation of bone. The turning of cartilage into bone (as in the joints). Cf. myositis ossificans, osteoarthritis.
 

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Osteoarthritis -- A noninflammatory joint disease of older persons. The cartilage in the joint wears down, and there is bone growth at the edges of the joints. Results in pain and stiffness, especially after prolonged exercise. Cf. arthritis.

Overload -- Subjecting a part of the body to efforts greater than it is accustomed to, in order to elicit a training response. Increases may be in intensity or duration.

Overload principle -- Applying a greater load than normal to a muscle to increase its capability.
 
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