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Sticky Verklarende woordenlijst A - Z

Topic in 'Oefeningen' gestart door Alfadhir heitir, 23 jan 2003.

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  1. Alfadhir heitir

    Alfadhir heitir Senior Moderator Super Mod +15 jaar member Topic Starter

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    Universal machine -- One of several types of weight lifting devices where weights are on a track or rails and are lifted by levers or pulleys. Deveeloped in the early 60s by Chuck Coker, the phrase originally referred to a multi-station gym.

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) -- UFAs are important in lowering blood cholesterol and may thus help prevent heart disease. They are essential for normal glandular activity, healthy skin, mucous membranes and many metabolic processes.

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are fatty acids whose carbon chain contains one or more double or triple bonds, and which are capable or receiving more hydrogen atoms. They include the group polyunsaturates, are generally liquid at room temperature and are derived from vegetables, nuts, seeds or other sources. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil and olive oil. Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats in the diet can help reduce cholesterol levels.

    A small amount of highly unsaturated fatty acid is essential to animal nutrition. The body cannot desaturate a fat, such as vegetable shortening or margarine, sufficiently by its own metabolic processes to supply this essential need. Therefore, the dietary inclusion of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fats is vital.

    The three essential fatty acids (those which the body is unable to manufacture) are linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid. However, these fatty acids can be synthesized from linoleic acid if sufficient intake occurs. Linoleic acid should provide about 2% of total dietary calories. Corn, safflower and soybean oils are high in linoleic acid.

    Cf. monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat.

    Upper abs -- Abdominal muscles above navel (see lower abs).
     
  2. Alfadhir heitir

    Alfadhir heitir Senior Moderator Super Mod +15 jaar member Topic Starter

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    Valsalva maneuver -- Valsalva Maneuver -- If the glottis (the narrowest part of the larynx) is closed following full inspiration and the expiratory muscles are fully activated, the compressive forces of exhalation can increase the intrathoracic pressure from 2 or 3 mm Hg to upwards of 100 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure. This forced exhalation against a closed glottis is called the Valsalva maneuver (named after the Italian anatomist who first explained the phenomenon), and is common in weightlifting or other activities requiring short rapid maximum force application. The intrathoracic pressure causes the veins to compress and this in turn results in significantly reduced venous blood flow into the heart and into the brain. Dizziness, "spots" before the eyes and blackout can ensue. This is one good reason why those with cardiac problems should refrain from all-out straining (as in isometric contraction), and insterad should engage in a more rhythmic type of weightlifting technique.

    Vasoconstriction -- The narrowing of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow to a body part.

    Vasodilation -- The enlarging of a blood vessel to increase blood flow to a body part.

    Vanadyl Sulfate -- Vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) has been very extensively studied for its insulin-like activity as a blood glucose lowering agent. In other words, vanadyl sulfate dramatically increases glucose uptake by your muscle cells. There are many benefits:

    - Increased energy for workouts;

    - More rapid recovery following workouts;

    - Muscle glycogen (what glucose becomes when stored in your muscles) is more abundant, thereby providing a protein-sparing effect;

    - This protein-sparing effect provides for better protein synthesis (muscle growth and repair);

    - Increased storage of muscle glycogen provides a fuller, more dense appearance to your visible muscles.

    Care must be taken with this substance however. Vanadium can build up in various tissues of the body, especially the kidneys. Tiron (see Tiron) is the only known chelator capable of eliminating this danger, although vitamin c, glutathione and other antioxidants can help.

    Variable resistance -- Strength training equipment which can, through the use of elliptical cams and other such technology, vary the amount of weight being lifted to match the strength curve for a particular exercise. Nautilus machines, for example, provide this feature. (See Constant Resistance and Accommodating Resistance.)

    Variable Split Training -- A weight training system developed in the mid 80s by Dr. Fred Hatfield that systematizes workout schedules according to the recuperation of individual muscle groups and body parts. This method maximizes development by eliminating effects of overtraining or undertraining. Also Variable Double Split and Variable Triple Split for multiple daily workouts.

    Vascularity -- Increase in size and number of observable veins. Highly desirable in bodybuilding.

    Vein -- A vessel which returns blood from the various parts of the body back to the heart.

    Ventilation -- Breathing. Cf. expiration, inspiration, respiration.

    Vertigo -- Sensation that the world is spinning or that the individual is revolving; a particular kind of dizziness.

    Vital capacity -- Maximal breathing capacity; the amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration; the maximum total volume of the lungs, less the residual volume.

    Vital signs -- The measurable signs of essential bodily functions, such as respiration rate, heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, etc.

    Vitamins -- A number of unrelated organic substances that are required in trace amounts for the metabolic processes of the body, and which occur in small amounts in many foods.

    Vitamin -- Organic food substances present in plants and animals, essential in small quantities for the proper functioning of eveeery organ of the body, and for all energy production. Most are obtained from food, but supplementation is almost always advised, and regarded as critical for athletes in heavy training.

    Vitamin A -- A fat-soluble vitamin occurring as preformed vitamin A (retinol), found in animal origin foods, and provitamin A (carotene), provided by both plant and animal foods. Maintains healthy skin, mucous membranes, eyesight, immune system function, and promotes strong bones and teeth. Vital to the liver's processing of protein. RDA: 5,000 International units. Dietary sources: fish liver oil, liver, eggs, milk and dairy, green and yellow vegetables, and yellow fruits.
     
  3. Alfadhir heitir

    Alfadhir heitir Senior Moderator Super Mod +15 jaar member Topic Starter

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    Vitamin B complex -- Vitamin B-Complex -- A family of 13 water-soluble vitamins, probably the single-most important factor for the health of the nervous system. They are essential to the conversion of food into energy. When you exercise strenuously, your body quickly burns up its vitamin B supply. A shortage of Bs affects both performance and recovery. High consumption of sugar, caffeine, processed food and alcohol cause depletion. These vitamins are grouped together because of their common source, distribution, and their interrelationship as coenzymes in metabolic processes. The best food source for vitamin B-complex is Brewer's yeast. All must be present together for the B-complex to work. Vitamin B-complex consists of the following vitamins:

    Biotin

    Choline

    Inositol

    Vitamin B-1 (thiamine)

    Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin)

    Vitamin B-3 (niacin)

    Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid)

    Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine)

    Vitamin B-9 (folacin)

    Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin)

    These vitamins are grouped together because of their common source, distribution, and their interrelationship as coenzymes in metabolic processes. The best food source for vitamin B-complex is Brewer's yeast. All must be present together for the B-complex to work.

    Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) -- Essential for learning capacity and muscle tone in the stomach, intestines and heart. RDA: 1.4 mg (men), 1.0 mg. (women). Dietary sources: brewer's yeast, wheat germ, blackstrap molasses, whole wheat and rice, oatmeal, most vegetables.

    Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) -- An essential co-factor in the enzymatic breakdown of all foodstuffs. Important to cell respiration, good vision, skin and hair. RDA: 1.6 mg. Dietary sources: liver, tongue, organ meats, milk, eggs. The amount found in foods is minimum, making this America's most common vitamin deficiency.

    Vitamin B-3 (niacin) -- Essential for synthesis of coïtus hormones, insulin, and other hormones. Effective in improving circulation and reducing blood cholesterol. RDA: 19 mg. (men), 13 mg. (women). Dietary sources: lean meats, poultry, fish and peanuts.

    Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid) -- An important stress, immune system and anti-allergy factor. Vital for proper functioning of adrenal glands, where stress chemicals are produced. Promotes endurance. RDA: 10 mg. Dietary sources: organ meats, egg yolks, whole-grain cereals.
     
  4. Alfadhir heitir

    Alfadhir heitir Senior Moderator Super Mod +15 jaar member Topic Starter

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    Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) -- Essential for the production of antibodies and red blood cells, and the proper assimilation of protein. The more protein you eat, the more B-6 you need! Facilitates conversion of stored liver and muscle glycogen into energy. RDA: 1.8 mg. (men), 1.5 mg. (women). Dietary sources: brewer's yeast, wheat bran, wheat germ, liver, kidney, cantaloupe.

    Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) -- Necessary for normal metabolism of nerve tissue and formation and regeneration of red blood cells. RDA: 3 micrograms. Dietary sources: animal protein. Liver is the best.

    Vitamin C -- A critical health-protection nutrient. Body stores are depleted rapidly by drugs, toxins, smoking, exercise and stress. Fortifies the immune system against virus infections, strengthens blood vessels, reduces cardiovascular abnormalities, lowers fat and cholesterol levels, as a natural anesthetic it reduces many kinds of pain, helps detoxify chemical and metal contaminants found in the air, water and food, slows down lactic acid buildup, helps heal wounds, scar tissue and injuries. Necessary in the formation of connective tissue. RDA: 60 mg, but tolerated in doses exceeding 10,000 mg (10 grams) daily. Dietary sources: citrus fruits, berries, green and leafy vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes.

    Vitamin D -- A fat-soluble vitamin, acquired through sunlight or diet. Aids the body in utilization of vitamin A, calcium and phosphorus. Helps maintain stable nervous system and normal heart action. RDA: 400 International units. Dietary sources: fish-liver oils, sardines, salmon, tuna, milk and dairy.
     
  5. Alfadhir heitir

    Alfadhir heitir Senior Moderator Super Mod +15 jaar member Topic Starter

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    Vitamin E -- This fat-soluble vitamin is an active anti-oxidant retarding free-radical damage, as well as protecting oxidation of fat compounds, vitamin A, and other nutritional factors in the body. Important to cellular respiration, proper circulation, protection of lungs against air pollution, and prevention of blood clots. Helps alleviate leg cramps and "charley horse." RDA: 15 International units (men), 12 (women). Dietary sources: wheat germ, cold-pressed vegetable oils, whole raw seeds and nuts, soybeans.

    Vitamin K ("Koagulation") -- This vitamin is implicated in proper blood clotting. It is synthesized in the intestinal flora. Because it is fat-soluble, it has the potential for toxicity if taken in large doses. There is no established RDA.

    o(V,.)O2 max -- Maximum Volume of Oxygen consumed per unit of time. In scientific notation, a dot appears over the V to indicate "per unit of time." Cf. maximal oxygen uptake.



    Warm-up -- A gradual increase in the intensity of exercise to allow physiological processes to prepare for greater energy outputs. Changes include: rise in body temperature, cardiovascular- and respiratory-system changes, increase in muscle elasticity and contractility, etc. Flexibility exerecises and stretching are NEVER advised as a warm-up strategy because of the damage that is easily caused to cold muscles.

    Watt -- A measure of power equal to 6.12 kilogram-meters per minute.

    Weightlifter's headache -- An exertional type of pain which may be due to intense clenching of the jaws during heavy lifts.

    Weightlifting -- An Olympic sport where athletes compete in defined weight classes to lift the most weight overhead. The two lifts contested are the snatch and the clean and jerk. Three attempts are given in each of the two lifts. See Olympic lifts.

    Weight training -- Exercise that utilizes progressive resistance movements to build strength. Practiced intensely by powerlifters, weightlifters and bodybuilders in particular, and by all athletes interested in developing any form of strength.

    Weight training belt -- Thick leather belt developed by weightlifters in the early part of the century, usually 4 inches wide in the back and 2 inches wide in the front, used to support lower back while doing squats, military presses, dead lifts, bent rowing, etc. Powerlifters opt for a belt that's 4 inches wide all the way around. New research which compares the level of support afforded the lumbar spine during lifting, however, clearly shows that a belt which covers the abdominal wall between the lower ribs and the pelvis, and with a more comfortable narrow belt going around the back, is far superior to the belts traditionally worn. This new belt is called a "LORA" (acronym for Lumbar Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance).

    Wellness -- A state of health more positive than the mere absence of disease. Wellness programs emphasize self-responsibility for a lifestyle process that realizes the individual's highest physical, mental, and spiritual well-being.

    Wet-bulb thermometer -- A thermometer whose bulb is enclosed in a wet wick, so that evaporation from the wick will lower the temperature reading more in dry air than in humid air. The comparison of wet-and dry-bulb readings can be used to calculate relative humidity. Cf. dry bulb thermometer, wet-globe temperature.

    Wet-globe temperature --A temperature reading that approximates the heat stress which the

    environment will impose on the human body. Takes into account not only temperature and humidity, but radiant heat from the sun and cooling breezes that would speed evaporation and convection of heat away from the body. Reading is provided by an instrument that encloses a thermometer in a wetted, black copper sphere. Cf. dry-bulb thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer.

    Whey -- A milk byproduct with a biological value of 80-88. In recent years, clinical scientists have improved the BV by enzymatically altering the bonds between the amino acids forming the protein complex. Called "engineered" whey, the BV is slightly higher than eggs. See BV

    White Blood Cell -- White blood cells are nucleated cells, originating from the bone marrow, that make up the infection-fighting components of the blood. White blood cells fight infections by producing antibodies, releasing immune factors, or ingesting invading bacteria or viruses.

    Work -- Force times distance. Measured in foot-pounds and similar units. Example: Lifting a 200-pound barbell 8 feet and lifting a 400-pound barbell 4 feet each require 1,600 foot-pounds of work.

    Work measures -- See foot-pounds, kilogram-meters.

    Workout -- A complete exercise session, ideally consisting of warm-up, intense aerobic and/or strength exercises, and cool-down.

    Workrate -- Power. The amount of work done per unit of time. Can be measured in foot-pounds per second, watts, horsepower, etc.

    Xiao Pangmei -- pronounced "shou-pang-may" -- "XPM" for short) was recently put to a single blind test by Drs. Qin Zhengyu ((physiologist) and Xu Aihua (endocrinologist), both researchers at the First Military Medical University in China. These researchers noted a highly significant body fat reduction in comparison to a control group and a placebo group, which, upon further testing they discovered had resulted from:

    · Inhibition of the appetite center of the brain

    · Inhibition of intestinal absorption of glucose (direct inhibition of intestinal membrane transport)

    · Strengthened physical capacity (XPM subjects could swim longer and showed zero decrease in muscular strength despite significant weight loss)

    · There were no side effects found.

    Yeast -- A one-celled fungus used in brewing and leavening bread. Some yeast, such as brewer's yeast, is highly nutritious. Many individuals are allergic to yeast. Candida albicans is a common yeast living within the body but which can multiply and produce sickness-causing toxins. Antibiotics, sugar-rich diets, birth control pills, cortisone and other drugs stimulate Candida growth.

    Yerba mate -- An extract from a South American (especially Argentina and Paraguay) plant used extensively as a stimulating tea drink. Contains vitamins B-1, B-2 and C, and a natural substance called mateina, which enhances energy and mental concentration. Mateina is molecularly described as a "stereo isomer" of caffeine. It initiates a thermogenic response (e.g., increased heart rate) as does caffeine, but without caffeine's "jittery" side effects.

    Zinc -- Has significant roles in protein synthesis, maintenance of enzyme systems, contractibility of muscles, formation of insulin, synthesis of DNA, healing processes, prostrate health and male reproductive fluid. RDA: 15 mg. Deficiencies are common due to food processing and zinc-poor soil. Excessive sweating can drain up to 3 mg. daily. Dietary sources: meat, wheat germ, brewer's yeast, pumpkin seeds, eggs.

    Zinc Chelate is the element zinc in supplemental form and coated with protein, thus increasing the percentage that it can be assimilated by the body.

    Deficiency in zinc is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. Zinc salts are often poisonous when absorbed by the system, producing a chronic poisoning resembling that caused by lead.
     
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