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Overtraining -- Excessive training, principally of the eccentric contraction phase of lifting weights or running. Can cause injuries, loss of body weight, insomnia, anorexia, depression, chronic muscle soreness and retard workout recovery.

Overuse -- Excessive repeated exertion or shock which results in injuries such as stress fractures of bones or inflammation of muscles and tendons.
Overuse Syndrome -- Injury resulting from overtraining.

Oxidation -- Oxidation is the chemical act of combining with oxygen or of removing hydrogen.

Oxidative Sports -- Sports such as long distance running or cycling wherein oxygen must be present to allow movement to continue (see ATP/CP Sports and Glycolytic Sports).

Oxygen (O2) -- The essential element in the respiration process to sustain life. The colorless, odorless gas makes up about 20 percent of the air, by weight at sea level.
Oxygen consumption -- See oxygen uptake.

Oxygen debt -- The oxygen consumed in recovery from exercise above the amount that would normally be consumed at rest. In intense endurance activities, oxygen debt refers to the amount of oxygen that is "owed" to the system to oxidize lactic acid build-up. One's tolerance for an accumulated debt is generally proportional to the level of fitness.
Oxygen deficit -- The energy supplied anaerobically while oxygen uptake has not yet reached the steady state which matches energy output. Becomes oxygen debt at end of exercise.
Oxygen Uptake -- The amount of oxygen intake used up at the cellular level during exercise. Can be measured by determining the amount of oxygen exhaled as compared to the amount inhaled, or estimated by indirect means.

Parcourse training -- A concept borrowed from outdoor parks and applied to the gym during sports-specific phase of foundation training for aerobic athletes. Involves the performance of aerobic activities -- jogging, skipping rope, straddle jumping, bicycle ergometer -- between exercises of a weight training routine.

Partial reps -- Performing an exercise without going through a complete range of motion. Exercise mythology has it that one must exercise a muscle through a full range of motion of the joint upon which the muscle acts in order not to become "muscle bound" and to derive maximum strength and growth. In reality, partial movements often provide better overload because more weight can be moved.

Peak contraction -- Exercising a muscle until it cramps by using shortened movements.

Peak heart rate -- The highest heart rate reached during a work session.

Pecs -- Slang for pectoral muscles of the chest.

Peptide -- A peptide is any member of a class of compounds of low molecular weight which yield two or more amino acids on hydrolysis. Formed by loss of water from the NH2 and COOH groups of adjacent amino acids, they are known as di-, tri-, tetra- (etc.) peptides, depending on the number of amino acids in the molecule. Peptides ("polypeptides")form the constituent parts of proteins.
Peridoxine Alphaketoglutarate (PAK) -- Vitamin B6 (peridoxine) is ionically combined with the complexing agent, alphaketoglutarate to form a high energy compound. It is widely used as a nutritional supplement by athletes wishing to improve energy output.

Periodization -- "Periodized training" is a phrase which refers to how one’s training is broken down into discreet time periods called "macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles.

Peripheral heart action (PHA) -- Deveeloped in the early 60s by Chuck Coker (inventor of the "Universal" multi-station exercise machines), PHA training is an excellent all-around system of weight training whereby muscles are exercised in an alternating sequence of upper and lower body. This method keeps blood circulating constantly throughout the body, prevents undue fatigue in any given muscle, facilitates recovery and provides a holistic muscular development. It is mildly cardiovascular.

pH -- A measure of acidity, relating to the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. A pH of 7.0 is neutral; acidity increases with lower numbers, and alkalinity increases with higher numbers. Body fluids have a pH of about 7.3.

Phosphorus -- Works with calcium to build up bones and teeth. Provides a key element in the production of ATP. RDA: 800 mg. Dietary sources: animal protein, whole grains.

Physical conditioning -- A program of regular, sustained exercise to increase or maintain levels of strength, flexibility, aerobic capacity, and body composition consistent with health, fitness or (especially) athletic objectives.

Physical fitness -- The physiological contribution to wellness through exercise and nutrition behaviors that maintain high aerobic capacity, balanced body composition, and adequate strength and flexibility to minimize risk of chronic health problems and to enhance the enjoyment of life.

Physical work capacity (PWC) -- An exercise test that measures the amount of work done at a given, submaximal heart rate. The work is measured in oxygen uptake, kilopond meters per minute, or other units, and can be used to estimate maximal heart rate and oxygen uptake. Less accurate, but safer and less expensive than the graded exercise test.

Physiology -- The study of the body's functions.

Plasticity -- The term plasticity refers to the profound ability of muscle, in this case skeletal muscle, to adapt to different perturbations or stimuli. These adaptations can be measured at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole muscle level. Skeletal muscle, more so than any other tissue (except maybe the uterus during pregnancy) , exhibits a tremendous ability to remodel itself.
Plyometric -- A type of exercise that suddenly preloads and forces the stretching of a muscle an instant prior to its concentric action. An example is jumping down from a bench and immediately springing back up.

PNF stretch -- See proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch.

Polyunsaturated fat -- Dietary fat whose molecules have more than one double bond open to receive more hydrogen. Found in safflower oil, corn oil, soybeans, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds. Cf. monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat.

Post-exercise muscle soreness -- Microtrauma to connective tissue releases an amino acid called hydroxyproline which, within 48 hours, causes irritation to local nerve endings, triggering pain. Typically occurs from exertion or concentrated movement after a long period of disuse but even affects the most physically fit athletes after excessively stressful exercise.

Potassium -- Teams with sodium to regulate body's water balance and heart rhythms. Nerve and muscle function are disturbed when the two minerals are not balanced. Insufficient potassium can lead to fatigue, cramping and muscle damage. Physical and mental stress, excessive sweating, alcohol, coffee, and a high intake of salt (sodium) and sugar deplete potassium. No RDA. Dietary sources: citrus, cantaloupe, green leafy vegetables, bananas.

Power -- Work performed per unit of time. Measured by the formula: work equals force times distance divided by time. A combination of strength and speed. Cf. strength.

Powerlifts -- Three lifts contested in the sport of powerlifting: the squat, bench press and deadlift. Powerlifting was first organized in the USA in the early 60s from the "odd lifts" competitions which used to be part of almost all bodybuilding and weightlifting competitions. Of the over 40 odd lifts contested, these three lifts were chosen as being the most representative test of total body limit strength.
Power training -- System of weight training using low repetitions and explosive movements with heavy weights.

Preload -- The stretching of a muscle prior to contracting it, thereby providing both a "stretch reflex" and a viscoelastic component, adding to the total force output.

Primary risk factor -- A risk factor that is strong enough to operate independently, without the

presence of other risk factors. Cf. risk factor, secondary risk factor.

Prime mover -- The muscle or muscle group that is causing the movement around a joint. Cf. agonist.

Progressive resistance exercise -- Exercise in which the amount of resistance is increased to further stress the muscle after it has become accustomed to handling a lesser resistance.

Pronation -- Assuming a face-down position. Of the hand, turning the palm backward or downward. Of the foot, lowering the inner (medial) side of the foot so as to flatten the arch. The opposite of supination.

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch -- Muscle stretches that use the proprioceptors (muscle spindles) to send inhibiting (relaxing) messages to the muscle that is to be stretched. Example: The contraction of an agonist muscle sends inhibiting signals that relax the antagonist muscle so that it is easier to stretch. (Term was once applied to a very specific therapeutic technique, but now is being widely applied to stretch techniques such as slow-reversal-hold, contract-relax, and hold-relax.)

Proprioceptor -- Self-sensors (nerve terminals) that give messages to the nervous system about movements and position of the body. Proprioceptors include muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs.
Protease -- Proteases are a category of enzymes which attack specific bonds between amino acids and proteins. The proteases break amino acid bonds to split up the protein molecule into smaller pieces of lined amino acids.

Examples of proteases are renin and pepsin; these enzymes can be found in animals. Rennin is used in the thickening of milk and is isolated from the stomach of the calf; pepsin is found in the gastric juices of humans and other animals where it breaks down proteins at specific places.

Protein -- One of the three basic foodstuffs -- along with carbohydrates and fat. Proteins are complex substances present in all living organisms. It comprises 90 percent of the dry weight of blood, 80 percent of muscles, and 70 percent of the skin. Protein provides the connective and structural building blocks of tissue and primary constituents of enzymes, hormones and antibodies. The components of protein are amino acids. Dietary protein is derived from both animal and plant foods.

Protein is essential for growth, the building of new tissue, and the repair of injured or broken-down tissue. They serve as enzymes, structural elements, hormones, immunoglobulins, etc. and are involved in oxygen transport and other activities throughout the body, and in photosynthesis. Protein can be oxidized in the body, liberating heat and energy at the rate of four calories per gram. Cf. amino acids, essential amino acids.

Protein efficiency ratio (PER) -- A system of rating the quality of dietary protein by the number and proportions of the essential amino acids contained in it. Eggs rank highest. They contain all eight essential amino acids in a proportion regarded as the most readily assimilable and usable combination of naturally-occurring amino acids. Eggs are the standard by which all other protein sources are rated for assimilability.

Proprioceptor -- Sensory organs found in muscles, tendons, joints and skin which sense and provide information about movement, body position and environment.

Pulmonary -- Pertaining to the lungs.

Pulmonary (ventilatory) capacity -- The efficiency of gas exchange in the lungs.

Pumped -- Slang term to describe the tightness in a muscle made large through exercise. The pumped sensation results from blood engorgement and lactic acid accumulation in the exercised muscle.

Pumping iron -- Slang for lifting weights, a phrase used since the 1950s.

Pyramid Training -- A training protocol incorporating an upward- then-downward progression in weight, rep-per-rep or set-per-set.

Pyruvic Acid -- Pyruvic acid is the end product of the glycolytic pathway. This three-carbon metabolite is an important junction point for two reasons: it is the gateway to the final common energy-producing pathway, the Krebs cycle; and it provides acetyle coenzyme A (acetyl CoA), through which fatty acids, and in turn fat, are produced from glucose. Pyruvic acid converts to lactic acid as needed. Pyruvic acid increases in quantity in the blood and tissues in thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency. Thiamine is essential for its oxidation.

Qing Obesity Treatments -- The ancient Chinese have been observing and recording the symptoms of obesity for thousands of years. They observed three distinct varieties (below). These observations and recommended treatments were recently put to a test at Xi Yuan Hospital in China. Xi Yuan Hospital is the headquarters of the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on the clinical manifestations recorded by the Ancients, the researchers at Xi Yuan Hospital were able to treat obesity --on a permanent basis -- in 80 percent of the cases.

Type I Symptoms (spleen-wetness and phlegm-stagnation): Stuffiness in the chest, shortness of breath, general fatigue, muscular weakness, dizziness, heart palpitations, abdominal distention, poor appetite, whitish coated tongue, weak pulse. Treatment: Qing Xiao.

Type II Symptoms (excessive heat in spleen and stomach): Gluttonous eating habits, frequent hunger, flushed face, dry mouth, reddish tongue with yellowish coat, constipation, forceful pulse. Treatment: Qing Tong.

Type III Symptoms (Qi-stagnation and blood stasis): Chest pain, feeling of distention, irritability, good appetite, irregular menstruation or amenorrhea, slightly dry stool, purplish dark tongue with pronbounced spots, regular pulse. Treatment: Qing Jiang.

Quads -- Short for quadriceps, the four thigh muscles that extend the knee (all but the Vastus Intermedius also flex the hip). They are:

1. Rectus Femoris (Dominant front thigh muscle)

2. Vastus Intermedius (Underlies the Rectus Femoris)

3. Vastus Lateralis (Bottom of thigh, outside above knee)

4. Vastus Medialis (Bottom of thigh, inside above knee)

Quadriceps -- A muscle group at the front of the thigh connected to a common tendon that surrounds the knee cap and attaches to the tibia (lower leg bone). The individual muscles are the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis. Acts to extend the lower leg.

Quality training -- Training prior to bodybuilding competition where intervals between sets are reduced to enhance muscle mass and density, and low-calorie diet is followed to reduce bodyfat.
Radial pulse -- The pulse at the wrist.

Ratio of fast, intermediate and slow twitch fibers -- A fundamental strength factor relating to the distribution and specific capabilities of fibers within muscle tissue. "Fast twitch" (predominantly white fiber) muscles are stronger and more suited for strength activities. "Slow twitch" (red fiber) muscles are more enduring and suited for long-distance exercise. This ratio can be only slightly changed through training. You must train fast to be fast, and train long to be enduring.

Rating of perceived exertion -- A means to quantify the subjective feeling of the intensity of an

exercise. Borg scales, charts which describe a range of intensity from resting to maximal energy outputs, are used as a visual aid to exercisers in keeping their efforts in the effective training zone.

RDA (Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances) -- Estimates established by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences for nutritional needs necessary for prevention of nutrient depletion in healthy people. Does not take into account altered requirements due to sickness, injury, physical or mental stress, use of medications or drugs, nor compensate for the nutrient losses that occur during processing and preparation of food. RDA standards do not apply to athletes, who have extraordinary nutrient needs. While they were designed to meet the needs of a majority of people, RDAs are nonetheless far too low for serious athletes and even for fitness enthusiasts who exercise regularly. (See ODA -- Optimal Daily Allowances)

Reciprocal Innervation -- A phenomenon in which the opposing muscle group is stimulated to relax while the prime mover muscle(s) is simultaneously stimulated to contract, thereby allowing movement to occur.

Recruitment -- Activation of motor units; the greater the resistance encountered, the greater will be the Rectus recruitment necessary to overcome its inertia.

Rectus femoris -- The long, straight muscle in the front of the thigh which attaches to the knee cap. Part of the quadriceps muscle group.

Recuperation -- A physiological process involving full body and muscle recovery and subsequent muscle growth during a rest period between training sessions. Optimum increases in muscle growth or strength occurs only with complete recovery.

When you increase the intensity of your workout, there's a price that must be paid. That price is DISCIPLINE in finding ways of improving your recuperative ability. The most important method is called "periodization" training. There are ancillary methods:

· pre-workout meal of low glycemic index foods

· pre-workout use of appropriate supplements

· during-workout use of appropriate supplements

· post-exercise cooldown (stretching, calisthenics)

· post-cooldown whirlpool of affected muscles

· post-whirlpool massage of affected muscles

· post-massage visualization training, autogenic training, TM or self-hypnosis

· scheduling 5-6 meals daily

· ensuring that each meal follows the 1-2-3 rule (1 part of each meal's calories come from fat, 2 parts from protein and 3 parts from carbohydrates)

· taking at least one 20-30 minute nap per day

· working closely with a sportsmedicine and or a sports sciences expert.


1. Big muscles take longer to recover than smaller ones

2. Fast twitch muscles (your "explosive" muscles) take longer to recover than slow twitch muscle fibers ("endurance" muscles);

3. Guys recover faster than girls;

4. You recover faster from slow movements than from fast movements;

5. You recover faster from low intensity training than from high intensity training.
Rehabilitation -- A program to restore physical and psychological independence to persons disabled by illness or injury in the shortest period of time.

Renal -- Pertaining to the kidney.

Repetition -- An individual completed exercise movement. Repetitions are usually done in multiples. Cf. one repetition maximum, set.

Rep out -- Repeat the same exercise movement until you are unable to continue.

Residual volume -- The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration. Must

be calculated in the formula for determining body composition through underwater weighing.

Resistance -- The amount of weight used in each set of an exercise, or the force which a muscle is required to work against.

Respiration -- Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the cells of the body. Includes ventilation (breathing), exchange of gasses to and from the blood in the lungs, transportation of the gasses in the blood, the taking in and utilizing of oxygen, and the elimination of waste products by the cells. Cf. expiration, inspiration, ventilation.

Response -- An immediate, short-term change in physiological functions (such as heart-rate or respiration) brought on by exercise. Cf. adaptation.

Rest interval -- Pause between sets of an exercise which allows muscles to recover partially before beginning next set.

Rest pause training -- Training method where you press out one difficult repetition, replace bar in stand, then perform another rep after a 10-20 second rest, etc.

Retest -- A repetition of a given test after passage of time, usually to assess the progress made in an exercise program.

Risk factor -- A behavior, characteristic, symptom or sign that is associated with an increased risk of developing a health problem. Example: Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer and coronary heart disease. Cf. primary risk

factor, secondary risk factor.

Ripped -- Slang meaning extremely visible muscularity resulting from both hypertrophy and subcutaneous fat removal.

RM -- Acronym for "repetitions maximum." Thus, for example, 5RM stands for the maximum amount of weight you can perform for five repetitions.

'Roids -- Slang for anabolic steroid.

Rotator cuff -- A band of 4 muscles that hold the arm in the shoulder joint.

Sartorius -- The longest muscle in the body, involved in the movement of the thigh at the hip joint.

Saturated fat -- Dietary fat from primarily animal sources. Excessive consumption is the major dietary contributor to total blood cholesterol levels and is linked to increased risk for coronary heart disease.

Saturated Fatty Acid -- A saturated fatty acid is an acid which, by definition, has no available bonds in its hydrocarbon chain; all bonds are filled or saturated with hydrogen atoms. Thus the chain of a saturated fatty acid contains no double bond. The saturated fatty acids are more slowly metabolized by the body than are the unsaturated fatty acids.

Saturated fatty acids include acetic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and steric acid. These acids come primarily from animal sources, with the exception of coconut oil, and are usually solid at room temperature. In the case of vegetable shortening and margarine, oil products have undergone a process called "hydrogenation", in which the unsaturated oils are converted to a more solid form. Other principal sources of saturated fats are milk products and eggs.

Sedentary -- Sitting a lot; not involved in any physical activity that might produce significant fitness benefits.

Selenium -- A major nutrient antioxidant along with vitamins A, C and E. No RDA. Dietary sources: wheat germ, bran, tuna.

Screening -- Comparing individuals to set criteria for inclusion in a fitness program, or for referral to medical evaluation.

Secondary risk factor -- A risk factor that acts when certain other risk factors are present. Cf.

primary risk factor, risk factor.

Set -- A group of repetitions of an exercise movement done consecutively, without rest, until a given number, or momentary exhaustion, is reached. Cf. repetition.

Shin splints -- Pain in the front of the lower leg from inflammation of muscle and tendon tissue caused by overuse. Cf. overuse.

Siberian ginseng (eleutherococcus senticosus) -- A cousin of traditional Oriental ginsengs widely used among Russian athletes for boosting stamina and endurance, speeding workout recovery, and as a health tonic to normalize systemic functions and counter stress. An adaptogenic substance that enables athletes over time to adapt to increased training intensity.
Simple carbohydrates -- Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides occurring naturally in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Some examples of simple carbohydrates are glucose, galactose, and fructose, all of which are monosaccharides and, sucrose, lactose, and maltose, all of which are disaccharides.

Most simple carbohydrates elevate blood sugar levels rapidly, providing "instant energy" which is quickly utilized and dissipated. Fructose is an exception. Additionally, refined sources of simple carbohydrates, such as candy, contribute only calories to the diet. These "empty calories" are often consumed in place of foods which would provide important nutrients in addition to the energy.

Sign -- An indicator of disease found in physician's examination or tests; and objective indicator of disease. Cf. symptom.

Skeletal muscle -- Muscle that attaches to the skeletal system and causes body movement by a shortening or pulling action against its bony attachment.

Slow-twitch fibers -- Muscle fiber type that contracts slowly and is used most in moderate-intensity, endurance exercises, such as distance running. Cf. fast-twitch fibers.

Smooth muscle -- Involuntary muscle tissue found in the walls of almost every organ of the body.

Snatch -- Olympic lift where weight is lifted from floor to overhead (with arms extended) in one movement.

Somatotype -- (see Endomorph, Ectomorph and Mesomorph)

Sodium -- An essential mineral for proper growth, and nerve and muscle tissue function. A diet high in salt (40% of salt is sodium) causes a potassium imbalance and is associated with high blood pressure. No RDA. Dietary sources: salt, shellfish, celery, beets, artichokes.

Spasm -- The involuntary contraction of a muscle or muscle group in a sudden, violent manner.

Specificity -- The principle that the body adapts very specifically to the training stimuli it is required to deal with. The body will perform best at the specific speed, type of contraction, muscle-group usage, and energy-source usage it has become accustomed to in training.

Speed-Strength -- A type of strength typically referred to as power. Power, however, is an inadequate term as it does not differentiate between the two important types of speed-strength.

1. Starting strength involves turning on a maximum number of muscle fibers instantly in any given movement. Ballistic athletes, such as a sprinter, need this strength the most to make his muscles fire simultaneously with each stride. A boxer does the same with each punch, a baseball pitcher each time he hurls.

2. Explosive strength describes the firing of muscles fibers over a longer period of time after initial activation, for the purpose of pushing, pulling or moving a weighted object. Examples: weightlifting, shotputting and football.
Spinal nerves -- The 31 pairs of nerves radiating outward from the spinal cord which relay impulses to and from the skeletal muscles.

Spot reducing -- An effort to reduce fat at one location on the body by concentrating exercise, manipulation, wraps, etc. on that location. Though there are some minor exceptions, research indicates that any fat loss is mostly generalized over the body, however.

Sprain -- A stretching or tearing of ligaments. Severity ratings of sprains are: first-degree, partial tearing; third-degree, complete tears. Cf. strains.

Squats -- An upper leg and hip exercise usually performed with a barbell resting on the shoulders, and a deep knee bend is performed; the squatter then returns to an erect standing position. There are several methods of squatting, each having its own unique advantages and disadvantages. The squat is also one of the three lifts contested in the sport of powerlifting.

Stabilizer -- A muscle that stabilizes (or fixes) a bone so that movement can occur efficiently at another bone articulating with the stabilized bone.

Starch -- Starch is a polysaccharide made of glucose linked together. The body must convert starch into glucose which can be utilized for immediate energy or converted to glycogen and stored in the liver for later energy needs. It exists throughout the vegetable kingdom, its chief commercial sources being the cereals and potatoes.

Static contraction -- See isometric action.

Steady state -- The physiological stare, during submaximal exercise, where oxygen uptake and heart rate level off, energy demands and energy production are balanced, and the body can maintain the level of exertion for an extended period of time.

Steroids -- Naturally-occurring and synthetic chemicals that include some hormones, bile acids, and other substances. See anabolic steroids.

Straight sets -- Groups of repetitions (sets) interrupted by only brief pauses (30-90 seconds).

Strain -- A stretching or tearing of a musculotendinous unit. Degrees of severity include: first-degree, stretching of the unit; second-degree, partial tearing of the unit; third-degree, complete disruption of the unit. Cf. sprain.
Strength -- The application of muscular force in any endeavor (speed and distance are

not factors of strength) -- such as to a barbell, a ball, or to the ground underfoot. There are 5 broad categories of strength, each with its own special training requirements: absolute, limit, speed, anaerobic and aerobic.

There are many different factors that affect strength, and they fall into 4 broad categories:

1. Structural/Anatomical: muscle fiber arrangement, musculoskeletal leverage, ratio of fast- vs. slow-twitch fibers, tissue leverage, motion-limiting factors (scar tissue and adhesions), tissue elasticity, intramuscular\intracellular friction, and others.

2. Physiological/biochemical: stretch reflex, sensitivity of the Golgi tendon organ, hormonal function, energy transfer systems efficiency, extent of hyperplasia (muscle splitting), myofibrillar development, motor unit recruitment, cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory factors, and others.

3. Psychoneural/learned responses: "psych" (arousal level), pain tolerance, "focus" (concentration), social learning, "skill" (coordination), spiritual factors, and others.

4. External/environmental: equipment, weather and altitude, gravity, opposing and assistive forces.

The foregoing discussion notwithstanding, a more traditional way(despite being less precise) of classifying strength is to divide it into general, specific and special categories:

General strength. In this category, you train all the muscle groups without concentrating on the muscles that assist your particular event. Training for general strength will give you a base for your event - specific strength.

Specific strength. Training for specific strength is an intermediate type of training that takes into consideration only one aspect of a specific demand. It has an important function in joining general and special strength training together.

Specific strength will help you improve your techniques as you develop the strength needed to execute the exact movements of your event, whether they are jumping, throwing, or running.

In other words, once you have developed general (overall) body strength, you should then work on the strength of the particular muscle groups that will be most involved when you perform the event in which you compete.

Special strength. The term special, as it is used here, means "specialized." Each sport or event requires a specialized type of strength. Shot putters, for example, need starting strength and explosive strength, while wrestlers need anaerobic strength endurance. While the exercises for building specific strength are often of different intensity and duration than those of the typical agnostic movement, the exercises done for special strength training have to reflect all the components of the agnostic movement.

The base of special strength drills is represented by the complete movement in that the development of the most peculiar physical properties (strength, speed, endurance) is applied. When strength training is poured into the complete movement, respecting its dynamical-mechanical characteristics, it is called "special strength training."

Strength training -- Using resistance weight training to build maximum muscle force is the traditional way of defining the practice of strength training. However, a more global definition would account for the metabolic circumstances under which force is being applied (i.e., the energy contribution from ATP/CP, glycolytic or oxidative sources).

Stress -- The general physical and psychological response of an individual to any real or perceived adverse stimulus, internal or external, that tends to disturb the individual's homeostasis. Stress that is excessive or reacted to inappropriately, may cause disorders.

Stress fracture -- A partial or complete fracture of a bone bec ause of the remodeling process's inability to keep up with the effects of continual, rhythmic, nonviolent stresses on the bone. Cf. overuse.

Stress management -- A group of skills for dealing with stresses imposed on an individual

without suffering psychological distress and/or physical disorders.

Stress test -- See graded exercise test.

Stretching -- Lengthening a muscle to its maximum extension; moving a joint to the limits of its extension.
Stretch reflex -- To prevent overextension and serious injury to muscles and tendons, muscles are equipped with specialized nerve cells (spindles) that "apply the brakes" when elasticity maximum is reached. Careful ballistic training augmented with plyometric drills can heighten the threshold of the stretch reflex mechanism and improve strength-generating ability.

Striations -- Grooves or ridge marks of muscles' individual myofibrils visible through the skin, and resulting from both hypertrophy training and extremely low subcutaneous fat deposits; the ultimate degree of muscle definition.

Stroke volume -- The volume of blood pumped out of the heart into the circulatory system by the left ventricle in one contraction.

Submaximal -- Less than maximum. Submaximal exercise requires less than one's maximum

oxygen uptake, heart rate, or anaerobic power. Usually refers to intensity of the exercise, but may be used to refer to duration.

Succinates -- Succinic acid's biological activities are varied. Their chief function is in their enzyme activity, but they also combine with protein to rebuild muscle fiber and nerve endings, and help fight infection.

Sucrose -- Sucrose is a sweet disaccharide that occurs naturally in most land plants and is the simple carbohydrate obtained from sugarcane, sugar beet and other sources. It is hydrolyzed in the intestine by sucrase to glucose and fructose.

Sulfur -- A mineral of major structural importance to proteins, enzymes, antibodies, skin and hair. No RDA. Dietary sources: beans, beef, eggs.

Superset -- Alternating back and forth between two exercises until the prescribed number of sets is completed. The two exercises generally involve a protagonist and antagonist (e.g., the biceps and triceps, or the chest and upper back); however, common usage of the term also can mean any two exercises alternated with one another.

Supination -- Assuming a horizontal position facing upward. In the case of the hand, it also means turning the palm to face forward. The opposite of pronation.

Supplements -- Any enterally (taken into the body by mouth) or parenterally (taken into the body other than by mouth) administered substance which serves health, ergogenic, growth or other bodily processes which food alone either cannot accomplish or cannot accomplish as efficiently is referred to as a supplement. Supplements can be nutritional or non-nutritional in nature. The traditionally identified classifications of supplements are health foods, additives, herbals (botanicals), nutriceuticals (engineered foods), micronutrients, macronutrients, adaptogens (bodily adaptation enhancers), ergogenic (work enhancing) compounds and anabolic (growth enhancing) compounds. See Nutriceutical.
Symptom -- Any evidence by which a person perceives that he/she may not be well; subjective evidence of illness. Cf. sign.

Syncope -- Fainting. A temporary loss of consciousness from insufficient blood flow to the brain.

Syndrome -- A group of related symptoms or signs of disease.

Synergism -- The combined effect of two or more parts of forces or agents which is greater than the sum of the individual effects. Example: the synergistic effect of a multiple vitamin and mineral formula compared to the benefits of one or two vitamins.

Systole -- The contraction, or time of contraction, of the heart. Cf. diastole.

Systolic blood pressure -- Blood pressure during the contraction of the heart muscle. Cf. blood


Tachycardia -- Excessively rapid heart rate. Usually describes a pulse of more than 100 beats per minute at rest. Cf. bradycardia.

Taper down - See cool down.

Target heart rate (THE) -- The heart rate at which one aims to exercise at a THR of 60 to 90 percent of maximum heart rate reserve.

Tendon -- A band or cord of strong, fibrous (collagenous) tissue that connects muscles to bone.

Tendonitis -- Inflammation of a tendon.

Testing protocol -- A specific plan for the conducting of a testing situation; usually following an accepted standard.
Testosterone -- The coïtus hormone that predominates in the male, is responsible for the development of male secondary coïtus characteristics and is involved in the hypertrophy of muscle. Cf. estrogen. Anabolic steroids are synthetic chemicals that mimic the muscle-building effects of testosterone. Testosterone is an androgen, a coïtus hormone produced by all humans. It is important in the development of male gonads and coïtus characteristics. In females, testosterone is an intermediate product in the production of estradiols.

As a pharmaceutical drug, it is used to stimulate coïtus characteristics, to stimulate production of red blood cells, and to suppress estrogen production. Long-term use can lead to kidney stones, unnatural hair growth, voice changes, and decreased sperm count.

Therapy -- Related to fitness and sports, therapy is the application of a substance or technique in the prevention, management, and treatment of common athletic injuries and related problems. Many of the means available also play a role in enhanced recuperation after training sessions, which obviously leads to improved performances. Some of the therapeutic means in current use are strictly the domain of the sports medicine physician or a licensed physical therapist, while others can be safely applied by coaches and trainers, or even by the athletes themselves. Here are a few of the more common ones:

1. Diathermy: A professional therapeutic modality, diathermy is a form of high-frequency heat that penetrates injured tissues deeper and more effectively than other forms of heat therapy (e.g., hydroculator packs, moist-heat packs, etc.). Where other modalities penetrate between

one-eighth to one-fourth inch at best, diathermy reaches 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 inches into the injured tissues. Diathermy increases vasodilation (blood supply) needed both for carrying nutrients to and waste products away from injured tissues. Unlike other forms of heat therapy, diathermy's circulating heat does not produce static swelling at the treatment site. Note: All forms of heat therapy should be followed by cryotherapy, or cold treatment.

2. Electrostimulation: Typical use involves electrodes that create a contraction of the surrounding musculature, reducing edema by pumping fluid out of the affected tissue. An atypical application (but a very effective method of reducing edema) pioneered by former Eastern Bloc sports medicine specialists involves placing the electrodes not on the muscles, but

directly on the joint. Moderate to intense amounts of intermittent stimulation are applied for 10 to 15 minutes per session. This type of transarticular electrostimulation is most effective when implemented immediately after diathermy and followed by cryotherapy and elevation.

3. Cryotherapy: The application of cold (usually in the form of ice or "chemical ice") to body tissues for the purpose of pain relief and decreased swelling (via vasodilation). Typical use involves hourly applications of 10 to 15 minutes in duration. Ice is simple, inexpensive, and effective and can be applied without professional assistance.

4. Heat Therapy: Heating pads or hot showers are best when followed with ice because heat alone causes static swelling. Leaving a heating pad on all night is the worst treatment possible because it creates static edema. Never use heat sooner than 48 to 72 hours after an injury. When it is used, it should be used for only 10 to 15 minutes along with active stretching of

the body part being heated, followed by 10 to 15 minutes of ice and stretching of the affected area. Hot showers are great in the morning and after workouts to bring blood into the tissue, but the shower should be turned progressively cooler to cold in order to dissipate any swelling caused by heat.

5. Ultrasound: High frequency sound waves which oscillate to penetrate 1 to 2-1/2 inches into muscle tissue. Ultrasound loosens or breaks up scar tissue and tight fibrous adhesions due to injury. Frequently used in most musculoskeletal ailments.

6. Hydrotherapy: The use of water as a therapeutic/recuperative means.

The most common forms are:

* Contrast Showers: Done immediately after training to expose the

area to alternating bursts of hot and cold water. Comfortably hot for 2 to

3 minutes, followed by 2 minutes of progressively colder water up to the

point of discomfort. This procedure is then repeated for 4 to 6 cycles.

Since hot water is a vasodilator and cold water a vasoconstrictor, the net

effect of contrast showers is vastly improved circulation to the affected

areas. The effectiveness of contrast showers is markedly increased when combined with stretching. Various types of trunk stretches, including side bends as

well as flexion and extension, can be performed. Quadriceps, hamstring, and

pectoral stretches can also be performed after training sessions for these

muscle groups. Stretches are repeated for each contrasting cycle. A

handrail and nonslip rubber "skids" must be used for safety.

* Contrast Baths: Applied in the same manner and for the same

purpose as contrast showers. Contrast baths, however, are more convenient

for localized use (e.g., treating a limb instead of the entire body).

* Whirlpool: This form of therapy improves circulation and

renders a relaxation effect. Can be used for general or localized purposes.

Water temperature should stay between 102-103º F (28-35º C). Limit

immersion to 15 minutes or less. Avoid whirlpool if there is a swollen

joint or joints.

7. Cryo-kinetics for Low Back and Leg Recuperation: An ice pack can be

constructed by placing crushed ice in a "zip-lock" bag. Immediately after leaving the shower, the individual should lie down on the floor with his feet propped over a bed or couch and the ice pack under his lumbar spine. To improve the effect of this procedure tri-fold, he should stretch his

spine while on the ice and gently perform lateral (side to side) flexions alternated with pulling his knees to his chest. Mobilizing the spine in this way will counteract any stiffening effects from icing the back. Cryo-kinetic therapy is very beneficial in reducing contracted, tightened

muscle tissue as well as pumping these tissues free of accumulated, training-induced waste products. At least 15, but no longer than 20, minutes should be spent on the ice. This is most effective when done immediately after contrast showers.

8. Leg Elevation: Used as a means to reverse hydrostatic or columnar pressure after a long day standing or training. Leg elevation is particularly effective prior to training, and the effects are improved at least twofold when used concurrent with cryotherapy on the knees. For greatest effectiveness, elevate the legs for about 20 minutes, keeping them perpendicular to the floor while lying on the back.

9. Ongoing Professional Assistance: Many forms of therapy, including various types of "bodywork," are available to athletes at moderate cost and are highly recommended. The most commonly used forms of professional assistance are:

* Chiropractic * Massage Therapy

* Physical Therapy * Rolfing

* Neuromuscular Re-education * Tragering

* Acupuncture/pressure * Alexander Technique
Tiron -- Tiron (Sodium-4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) is a chelator mentioned in the research literature which effectively clears vanadium from body tissues right from the first day of use. It is currently not available in supplement form. (See vanadyl sulfate.)

Tissue elasticity -- Tissue elasticity ("viscoelasticity") is involved in all explosive sports, including shot put, boxing, the baseball and javelin throw, and powerlifting. After being stretched, most bodily tissues -- including muscles, but not so much with ligaments and tendons -- return to their original shape or length. The quicker they do, the more force there is added to the forcee output stemming from both stretch reflex and muscle contraction.

Tissue (or interstitial) leverage -- The degree of extra mechanical advantage gained by superheavyweight strength athletes by packing sheer mass from extra fat, liquid and protein between and inside muscle fibers.

Torque -- Moment of force; The turning or twisting effect of a force.

Training -- Subjecting the body to repeated stresses with interspersed recovery periods to elicit growth in its capacity to handle such stresses.

Training effect -- Increase in functional capacity of muscles and other bodily tissues as a result of increased (overload) placed upon them.

Training technologies -- Athletes can tap into eight broad categories of accepted methods to attain performance goals: weight training, light resistance training, medical support, therapeutic modalities (jacuzzi, massage,acupuncture, etc), psychological support, biomechanics, diet and nutritional supplements.

Training to failure -- Continuing a set in weight training until inability to complete another rep without assistance.

Training zone -- See target heart rate.
Transcendental Meditation ™ -- An effortless meditation technique scientifically shown to sweep away energy-sapping mental and physical stress and deep-rooted fatigue. Among athletes it improves energy, reaction time, workout recovery, mental alertness and coordination.

Traps -- Slang for trapezius muscles, the largest muscles of the back and neck that elevates the shoulder girdle and draws the scapulae medially.

Triceps brachii -- The muscles on the back of the upper arm are the prime movers for extending the elbow.

Trimming down -- Gaining hard muscular appearance by losing body fat (a more contemporary phrase is "trimming and toning").

Troponin -- A protein that reacts with calcium to set the contractile mechanism into action within muscle fibers.

Triglyceride -- Triglycerides are a combination of glycerol with three fatty acids: stearic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid.

Twitch -- A brief muscle contraction caused by a single volley of motor neuron impulses. Cf. fast-twitch fibers, slow-twitch fibers.
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