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Enhanced Neural Drive oftewel Post-tetanic facilitation/potentiation oftewel 1-6 (1 bezoeker)


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Berust op het principe van post tetanische potentiatie:

Post-tetanische potentiatie

Hoog-frequente, zgn. tetanische stimulatie van een axon wordt gevolgd door een korte periode (± 60 s) waarbij het postsynaptische antwoord vergroot is, een verschijnsel dat post-tetanische potentiatie wordt genoemd.

Dit ontstaat doordat door de hoog-frequente stimulatie er een build-up is van cytoplasmatisch calcium in het presynaptisch uiteinde, door gebrek aan tijd om calcium terug naar buiten te pompen of door saturatie van de cytoplasmatische calcium buffers.

Door de verhoogde cytoplasmatische calcium concentratie is er ook neurotransmitterloslating tussen de actiepotentialen. Bij hoog-frequente stimulatie van de neuromusculaire junctie treedt ook een analoog potentiatie fenomeen op dat tetanus (syn. tetanische contractie) wordt genoemd (men spreekt van tetanus indien de individuele contracties niet meer volledig terugvallen tot de rusttoestand). Het verschil met post-tetanische potentiatie is dat tetanus ontstaat door een postsynaptische calcium build-up, d.w.z. t.h.v. de spiervezels. Hierdoor stijgt de cytoplasmatische calcium concentratie in de spiervezels. Aangezien de contractiekracht, althans in een beperkt gebied, evenredig is met de cytoplasmatische calcium concentratie neemt bij tetanus de contractiekracht toe (cfr. RMP p. 68).


Kom er heeel simpel gezegd op neer dat na een zware rep je meer reps kunt maken met een lichter gewicht. Dus als je normaal 5*100 zou kunnen kan je met deze methode 6-7*100

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Enhanced Neural Drive
Researched and Composed by Jacob Wilson

Introduction
Before hypertrophy training was my primary focus, I worked out for speed and explosion. Essentially the goal was to run faster, explode quicker out of the hole, and hit harder. I was fortunate enough to train under a plyometric program at Ather Sports, which was founded and created by the great speed training coach, Dr. Chu. While bodybuilding, and explosive training are two different activities, clearly separate in approach, and style, you will find, that when applied properly, many of the same techniques can greatly enhance your ability to add muscle! Perhaps by leaps and bounds! With that in mind, I would like to analyze an infamous nervous system technique from both a hypertrophy standpoint and a speed enhancing standpoint.


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Basis of Technique


Doctor Donald A. Chu, once made a statement that has stuck in my head, ever since hearing it.

“ If the muscular system is the computer, the nervous system is the software. The nervous system triggers a muscle’s response to a stimulus, telling it what to do and when to do it(1). “

While that statement may sound simple, it is really quite revolutionary. In that it teaches us to view our bodies as complex machines. Machines that compensate, adapt, and most importantly machines that can be manipulated for the goal at hand! If you want to perform a certain way, just stick in the right software and presto, instant action.

The Technique Explained

This method of training has actually been used by numerous trainers for a long time. It is used with several variations. The most popular is ascosiated mainly with Romanian and Hungarian lifters who implement it into their strength routines. And Coach Dragomir Cioroslan is credited for introducing it to the United States. Although again, several trainers such as Dr. Chu, have used variations of this theme for quite a while now. Again, the most famous method of using this is called the mixed neural drive/hypertrophy program. And Charles Poliquin, names it simply the 1,6 training principle.

Essentially the goal is to excite your nervous system, before your normal sets so that you end out recruiting more muscle fibers, and become stronger and more explosive in a matter of minutes!

Lets say for example that you could military press 135 pounds for 6 total repetitions. In order to apply this method, you would perform a one rep maximum set with of course a weight that you could only lift for one repetition. Therefore if your one rep max was 170 pounds you would perform one set with it. After which you would rest about 3-5 total minutes. By performing this heavy set your nervous system is now extremely excited and prepared for another taxing bout. Instead of exposing it to 170 however, you will expose it to 140 to 145 total pounds. You will find that you will be able to still get 6 reps, even though you upped the weight by 10 pounds! A 10 pound gain in one workout is nothing to sneeze at! That could conceivable take you a month to reach a goal like that, and you will have accomplished it in 3 minutes.

As far as an overall program, Coach Dragomir Cioroslan would have an athlete do something like this:

Set One: 170 pounds with a military press for one repetition

Set Two: 135 pounds with a military press for six repetitions
Set Three: 175 pounds with a military press for one repetition
Set Four: 140 pounds with a military press for six repetitions
Set Five: 175 ½ pounds with a military press for one repetition
Set Six: 145 pounds with a military press for six repetitions


You can see why Charles Poliquin has deemed this the 1, 6 principle(1 ). As you can see, it actually improves your nervous system’s efficiency as the sets go up.

Variations of This Theme

The above program is a basic strength, semi hypertrophy program. You could apply it to any exercise, be it squats, bench presses, dead lifts etc. However, for the bodybuilder it can be manipulated quite a few ways. Here are my suggestions for this:

1. Balls To The Wall - Rather than wave upwards, sticking with only six repetitions, go balls to the wall and attempt to go further than this. Its simple. If you can normally bench press 225 for 6 repetitions, and your one rep maximum is 280, then begin with one set of 280 pounds. Recover for 3-5 minutes, and then lift 225 till failure. You will find that you can actually get 7-10 repetitions! This is the “ why wait principle! “ After this you would continue with your normal routine.

2. Balls To The Wall Two - This is exactly the same as the above method, except that you would work with either 230 or 235 immediately after the one rep maximum.

3. Use Of Higher Repetitions - After lifting a one rep maximum, a lighter weight with 6 repetitions will feel much lighter, and you’ll have a tremendous amount more explosive power. However, this is a higher repetition sport. 6 repetitions is a minimum, but you can also apply this technique to lighter weights. Say, to something you could normally only lift 8 repetitions with. You could

A. Attempt to go up in weight and get the same number of repetitions

B. Stay with the same weight and try to drive out 9-12 repetitions. It can work fantastically!

Again, try varying your reps. You might even perform a one repetition set, followed by a weight light enough to normally rep out 12 repetitions, or even lighter.

4. Re-Rev It Man - If you begin your routine normally, with a weight you can get 6 repetitions with( or a bit higher ), you would normally go down in production the second set, in either your ability to drive the weight, control the weight, or match your previous repetitions. This trick can actually work to keep your strength up within the routine. It would look like this:

Set One: 300 pounds on the squat for 6 repetitions( again say this the maximum number that you can perform ).

Set Two: One rep maximum to excite your nervous system

Set Three: 6 repetitions again at 300. The method should allow you to maintain your strength or even increase it.

5. Neural Strip Sets - Of all the above methods, I would have to say that my absolute favorite is the neural strip set method. Remember, your goal in this sport is to create as much hypertrophy as possible, in as many muscle fibers as possible! Therefore you would begin by performing the same one rep maximum. Then perform a six repetition set( again you can vary this) to failure, followed by a strip set of 8 to 10 repetitions, followed by another optional strip set. Essentially this became a “ super strip set “ because your nervous system was able to recruit more muscle fibers than it would have been able to. You might rest for 5-10 minutes and repeat.

This nervous system trick, or hardcore software that you will insert into your massive frame will do a number of things. It will enhance progressive resistance / strength which is a staple in bodybuilding circles( although again, different from say power lifting, because the repetitions are higher ). It will allow you to stimulate growth in muscle fibers, that would have otherwise not been stimulated which again, is what hypertrophy training is all about. However, as you will soon find out, there's more than meets the eye, than even this!

Enhanced Speed, Explosion and More on Muscle Mass

I believe that by now, each of you reading this has heard of plyometrics. We will get more in depth on this subject in the future, but in short plyometrics are quick, explosive movements designed to enhance your speed, or strength levels. Essentially all hopping, skipping, jumping movements can be labeled as plyometrics. The key in doing them, is to limit as much time in contact with the ground, or surface as possible. Therefore, if I were to stand on a chair, step off of it, and immediately jump straight up I would have performed a plyometric movement. And my goal, would have clearly been to:

A. Explode off the ground as powerfully as possible

B. Eliminate as much time as possible on the ground. As this would take advantage of the stretch reflex. For a further explanation on elastic energy read the second muscle fiber article in the anatomy section.

Again, this trains the body to be more explosive. By properly implementing a plyometric program you would be faster, and quicker. However, the systems for these programs have evolved over the years. And when I trained under Dr. Chu’s system he was one of the first to implement plyo combined with weights almost simultaneously. Here is what he has to say on the subject:

Many athletes are married to tradition in the weight room, believing that the only training that should be performed there is weight training. Although they may concede that a small area for stretching is permissible, the weight room is sacred ground meant for squats bench presses, and curls. Weight rooms are for weights, that’s why they’re called weight rooms. Despite their narrow-minded philosophy, these athletes enjoy good results from their training.

Athletes who are more open-minded use a combination of resistance training and plyometrics over the course of their weekly schedule. Some even break tradition and perform plyometrics in the weight room! These athletes enjoy better results from their training. Finally, there are athletes
who combine weight training and plyometrics into the same workout session, using plyos not as a warm-up performed early in the workout, which is usually the case, but performing them between sets pr even as part of a weight training set. If a workout calls for four sets of squats, they’ll perform depth squats or repeat standing long jumps between sets These athletes perform complex training, and they enjoy the best results from their training. - Donald A. Chu ( 2 )

What's important to understand is that he was referring to the athlete looking for more speed and explosion. I will first discuss this, and also how that can be applied to bodybuilding.

Think of it this way. If you were to sprint as explosively as possible you could run to a spot at a certain speed. This is comparative to how many repetitions you could perform on say a six repetition set. But, if you excited your nervous system, you would actually end out being more explosive and run quicker than you previously could! Dr. Chu calls this specificity. In other words if you want to compete at higher speeds you need to train at higher speeds! By performing a one rep maximum on say the squat. Resting five minutes and then performing a plyometric movement you will be able to perform it at a much higher level, and flow with the law of specificity!

Lets say that you were a football player and wanted the ability to push someone harder, and with more explosion off the line. You would choose an explosive plyometric exercise that mimicked this. The two that come to mind are clap pushups and medicine ball passes. You would again, perform a maximum repetition on your bench press, and follow this up with 10 explosive clap pushups. I also call this the James Brunson method, because he used to be my trainer. He would have me perform clap pushups in between sets, and it noticeably improved my shoving ability, which can come in handy in many areas! It also improved my bench press. A sample program would look like this:

Set One: One Rep Maximum on Bench Press

Set Two: 6-10 explosive clap pushups

Repeat twice, for a total of 3 cycles.

Consequently clap pushups are tremendous fast twitch type IIB( the largest muscle fiber in our bodies) builders! If you want to change up your routine, try
starting off with the above cycle. Then simply finish your normal chest routine. You will not only increase your bench press, but also build quite a bit of muscle!
Its an excellent shocking method! I have implemented clap pushups in bodybuilding for quite some time now, and I can tell you, they are an excellent muscle builder, when used as a shocking method. A routine might look like:

1. The above 6 sets

2. parallel dips for 3 sets

3. incline dumbbell bench presses 3 sets

4. flat dumbbell flys 3 sets

That is just a sample, but you get the point. It is again twofold:

1. Speed is subject to the law of specificity. Which is to say, if you want to be faster, practice faster! Plyometrics are meant to mimic this faster speed. And they become chiefly effective when the nervous system has been excited, with the above training protocol

2. The plyometric set above can also be applied to bodybuilding. Replace your first exercise with the above training method and you will tap into fast twitch muscle fibers, that are not used to being tapped into. This equals more growth!

Final Words

Make sure and switch things up with this technique. You may use it for one set in a routine, or more. The key, as with any principle, is to use it wisely. Knowing our readers there will be countless variations made with this method in weight rooms across the world! Enjoy your gains, and keep it hardcore!

Yours In Sport

Jacob Wilson Trainer@abcbodybuilding.com
President Abodybuilding / Beyond Failure Magazine



References

1. The Poliquin Principles - By Charles Poliquin

2. Jumping Into Plyometrics - With Dr. Chu

3. Ather Sports Experiences

Enhanced Neural Drive by Jacob Wilson
 
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"Blackbook of trainingsecrets"


Post-tetanic facilitation/potentiation (say what?)

The strength training world was introduced to the term post-tetanic facilitation by strength coach and author Charles Poliquin in one of his articles (The 1-6 principle available at T-mag). Poliquin explains this phenomenon by saying that performing a heavy lift will enable you to perform better during later sets. Here is how Poliquin explains it:

"In a nutshell, if you do a 6RM (the maximum load you can lift for 6 reps) load within 3-10 minutes of doing a max single, you can use a greater weight that you could have if you hadn't done the 1RM set."

This is very true and it’s a very effective indeed. But lately many people have asked what exactly is this post-tetanic facilitation phenomenon, so here it is!

1. Potentiation
A physical/muscular activity can have an effect on other subsequent activities. The prior activity can either decrease the muscular performance in the later exercise (mostly due to the fatigue factor) or it can increase the performance during the later exercise (Abbate et al. 2000).

In the second case the performance is enhanced via a phenomenon called potentiation.
Potentiation refers to an increase in force output as a result of previous muscular activation (Abbate et al. 2000). There are many kinds of possible potentiation. The two best known ones are post-tetanic potentiation and high-frequency initial pulse potentiation.

2. Post-tetanic potentiation
The tetanus refers to a state of muscular activation that occurs either during a longmuscular contraction (so brought on by muscular fatigue) or a very intense contraction (so brought on by a maximum contraction). The tetanus can be explained as the summation of all the available motor-units.
It has been found that the force of the twitch of a muscle fiber is more important after than before the brief tetanus. This effect is present even 5 minutes after the tetanus (O'Leary et al. 1997). In fact, during a 7 second tetanus, the capacity to apply force decreases by 15% while this capacity is increased by 28% after 1 minute, 33% after 2 minutes and 25% after 5 minutes (O'Leary et al. 1997). So it appears that the capacity to produce force is greater 2-3 minutes after the cessation of the tetanic effort.
This increase in the capacity to produce force after a certain stimulation is called posttetanic potentiation (PTP). The most effective way to promote a large PTP is to place an intense stimulation on a muscle via a maximal effort/maximal tension contraction for a length of 5-10 seconds (Brown and von Euler, 1938, Vandervoort et al. 1983).

PTP can increase contraction strength, especially in fast-twitch fibers (Bowman et al. 1969, Standeart, 1964). PTP also improves the rate of force development (Abbate et al, 2000).

PTP works by increasing the phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, which makes the actin-myosin more sensitive to calcium in the subsequent twitch (Grange et al. 1993, Palmer and Moore 1989, O'Leary et al. 1997). This is not chiefly important, but, if you wish, you can grab a physiology textbook and review the sliding filament theory of muscular contraction to see how this would increase the capacity to produce force.

3. High Frequency Initial Pulse Potentiation (HFIP)
While this phenomenon is outside the scope of this article, understand that HFIP occurs at the start of ballistic movements (Abbate et al. 2000) and that it increases the power output, the rate of force development, and peak force (Mardsen et al. 1971, Burke et al. 1981, Hennig and Lomo, 1985).

4. Post-tetanic Facilitation (or post-tetanic potentiation)
Post-tetanic facilitation (PTF) is simply another term for post-tetanic potentiation. Both mean the same thing. PTF means that the tetanus facilitates a subsequent effort, while PTP means that the tetanus increases the potential for a subsequent effort. So it's basically word play that means the same thing! Just to give you an idea, there is yet another term to
describe that same phenomenon, post-activation potentiation (PAP). The terms are complex, but don't let them fool you… the basic premise is simple:
A maximal/near maximal muscular contraction, or effort, increases the capacity to produce force and power for up to 5-10 minutes, with a peak occurring 2-3 minutes after the maximal effort.

5. Applications of PTP
Coach Poliquin gives us a very good way to use PTP to increase size and strength with his 1-6 training. He also gives us a good way to use it for strength with his wave loading approach. But PTP can be used for other purposes.

For example, you can follow a maximal effort set with a set of explosive lifting (since PTP increase the rate of force development). For example, you could perform a heavy deadlift, rest 3 minutes, then perform a set of power cleans.
By understanding the basic premise of PTP you will be able to find your own ways to apply this phenomenon to your own training!
 
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The 1-6 Principle
By Charles Poliquin


Years ago, Charles Poliquin introduced German Volume Training to American athletes. I won't recap the thing here, but suffice it to say that it was a new, effective way to train and it got people excited. Finally, there was an alternative to the who-knows-where-it-came-from idea of doing three sets of ten over and over again until we were put in a small closet with handles on it and buried underneath the turf.

Well, it's time to change the way we train again. We're proud to introduce the 1-6 Principle to the bodybuilding world.


The 1-6 principle was first introduced to me at the National Strength and Conditioning Association Convention in San Diego back in 1991 by coach Dragomir Cioroslan, bronze medalist in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games. This set/rep bracket had been used with great success by elite Romanian and Hungarian weightlifters.

This training system had been known by the ungainly name of the mixed neural drive/hypertrophy program. Of course, knowing how things often work in this business, I half expect Greg Merritt to rehash it in Flex within three months as the "Joe Weider Neuro-potentiation Supermyofibrillartrophic program." Oh well.

The system is based on the neurological post-tetanic facilitation phenomenon as first discussed in strength training circles by German strength physiologist Dietmar Schmidtbleicher from Freiburg University (in order to be a successful strength coach, you must have an exotic-sounding name). In a nutshell, if you do a 6RM (the maximum load you can lift for 6 reps) load within 3-10 minutes of doing a max single, you can use a greater weight that you could have if you hadn't done the 1RM set.

For example, let's say you can normally do 220 pounds for six reps on the incline press. However, if you do a max single four minutes prior to doing your 6 reps — which we'll say for the sake of argument is around 265 — you'll be able to do six reps at 225-230 pounds. That's a significant increase.

In fact, many trainees who use this method find that their single poundages improve each wave. In fact, a typical wave for someone who can do 6 reps with 220 pounds on the incline press may look like this:

Set 1) 1 rep with 265 pounds
Set 2) 6 reps with 220 pounds
Set 3) 1 rep with 270 pounds
Set 4) 6 reps with 225 pounds
Set 5) 1 rep with 272.5 pounds
Set 6) 6 reps with 230 pounds

This isn't just a parlor trick. The basic premise is to use maximal loads to potentiate?the nervous system. Because of this newly increased, more efficient neural drive, you can use a greater load for six reps which ends up building bigger and stronger muscles.

Finnish strength physiologist Keijo H?kkinen has demonstrated in many of his experiments that long-term strength gains are directly related to how much you increase intensity. Therefore, expect to reach new heights in strength gains with this routine since it makes full use of that intensity increase principle.

This method could also be used by wrestlers or practitioners of some of the grappling sports like Jiu-Jitsu. These individuals are often interested in moving up a weight class while keeping their speed up. Well, this system will not only allow you to gain functional bodyweight, but your power should also go up since the system taps into the higher threshold motor units which are responsible for the production of explosive strength/power.

After I learned about this effective training technique, I returned home and used it with great success with bobsledders, lugers, skiers and speed-skaters who were preparing for the 1992 Albertville Games. Other top athletes have used elements of this type of training with great success, too. For instance, Olympic Gold medalists Valery Borsov and Ben Johnson would squat a 3RM load ten minutes before their record smashing performances in the sprint to make use of this post-tetanic facilitation.

I won't tease you any longer, though. Here's the routine. You should do this five-day cycle a total of six times. Therefore, 30 days are needed to complete this routine.

Editor's note: For those of you unfamiliar with Coach Poliquin's workouts, many are divided into A1 and A2 schemes. For instance, on the first routine below, you'd do one set of your 1RM max on Scott EZ Bar mid-grip curls, rest two minutes, and then do a set of 1RM on close-grip bench presses. Then, after two more minutes of rest, you'd go back the the A1 exercise, the Scott EZ Bar mid-grip curls. You might also be puzzled by the "tempo" designation. Don't worry, it's easy. For instance, on the first exercise below, Coach Poliquin has indicated a tempo of 40X0. This simply means that you should take four seconds to do the eccentric, or lowering portion of the curl. Then, without resting (0 seconds), you should explosively lift the weight (designated by an "X"), followed by no pause at the top of the movement. Likewise, in other Poliquin-type routines, you might see a 3121 tempo. Again, that would mean taking three seconds to lower the weight, followed by a one-second pause; two seconds to raise the weight, followed by a one-second pause before lowering the weight.


Day 1 — Arms

A1) Scott EZ Bar mid-grip curls
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6,1,6
Tempo: 40X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

A2) Close-grip bench presses
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6,1,6
Tempo: 40X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

B1) Standing medium-grip barbell curls
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6
Tempo: 40X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

B2) V-bar triceps dips
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6
Tempo: 40X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

Day 2 — Legs

A1) Back squats
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

A2) Lying leg curls, feet neutral
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

B1) Trap bar deadlifts
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

B2) Standing calf raises
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6
Tempo: 22X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

Day 3 — Off

Day 4 — Chest and Back

A1) Close parallel-grip chin-ups (weighted)
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

A2) Mid-grip bench presses
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

B1) Seated cable rows
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

B2) Incline barbell presses
Rep pattern: 1,6,1,6
Tempo: 50X0
Rest interval: Two minutes

Day 5 — Off


Comments

Before you bust my balls with hundreds of emails that all wonder why there's no isolation delt work, rotator cuff work, or forearm work included in this routine, remember that the goal of this routine is to promote large increases in strength and cross-sectional area of the high-threshold motor units. While we're on the subject, you might also notice that there are no isolation exercises for the scalenes, popliteus, fibular division of the tibialis posterior, or the pterygoid externus lateralis (lower division of course!)!

Therefore for the purpose of "training time economy," as my German colleague Schmidtbleicher would say, you should focus your attention on compound exercises such as squats and presses. Sorry Richard Simmons fans, there's no room for one-arm cable side laterals or and triceps kickbacks on this one.

Don't worry, though, your delts and forearms won't atrophy in the thirty days you should devote to this training system. If anything, they'll grow, because it'll be probably the first time you've ever given them a break.

Since you're going to be doing a series of 1RM lifts, it's imperative that you warm up. The warm up should always consist of doing reps with the first pair of the exercises listed in the work out. If you've warmed up properly, there's very little need to warm up for the second pair.

For illustration purposes, let say it's Day 2 (leg day) of the program and you can max out at 300 pounds in the back squat and 180 pounds on the Atlantis brand of lying leg curls. Your warm-up would then look like this (take only enough time to move from one exercise to the other, adjust the weight, and complete the warm-up set):

1) Back squats
Five reps with 135 pounds

2) Atlantis lying leg curls, feet neutral
Five reps with 80 pounds

3) Back squats
Three reps with 185 pounds

4) Atlantis lying leg curls, feet neutral
Three reps with 100 pounds

5) Back squats
Two reps with 225 pounds

6) Atlantis lying leg curls, feet neutral
Two reps with 120 pounds

7) Back squats
One rep with 265 pounds

8) Atlantis lying leg curls, feet neutral
One rep with 140 pounds

9) Back squats
One rep with 285 pounds

10) Atlantis lying leg curls, feet neutral
Two reps with 160 pounds

Take a two-minute rest, then start the workout.

Given that you're going to be working with maximum poundages, you should probably use a spotter for lifts like presses and squats. Of course, if the thought of doing heavy singles scares you, and you can't find a spotter, you could modify the routine by adopting a 2,5,2,5,2,5 sets and reps pattern.


Regardless, if it appears that you're going to fail on your single rep, don't let your ego take over! It's better to underestimate your poundage on singles than to use way too much weight and force your partner to do most of the work for you.

While going over the 1,6,1 workout, you might have noticed that the concentric range of each movement is always done explosively (designated by the "X"). This was done deliberately to force you to access the higher threshold motor units. You may in fact find that you're actually moving the load slowly because of its magnitude, but as Canadian strength physiologist Behm (1995) said, "It is not the intent so much as the actual velocity that dictates the motor unit recruitment." Therefore, as long as you try to move the weight quickly, you'll reap the benefits. The recent work of Slovanian strength researcher Gasovic (1998) confirms the need for explosive concentric contractions for strength and power increases.

Another imporant thing to remember is to keep an accurate record of all sets and reps in order to establish short-term goals for every workout. During the course of a proper strength training program, muscles adapt to the stress of lifting by becoming stronger. To be effective, the stress placed on muscles must represent an "overload," that is, a load greater than the one used in previous activity. Remember though, that the load increase doesn't need to be immense. For more information on this, you might want to check out the chapter on the "Kaizen Principle" in my book "The Poliquin Principles."

Given that this workout is so demanding on the nervous system, you might actually find yourself having trouble falling asleep for the first few times you use this program. Don't worry, this should pass in about six months or so. Nahh, just kidding. You should be fine after two or three days. However, if you want to beef up your nervous system, you may find that a supplement like Biotest's Power Drive will help you maximize your work capacity by affecting the level and release of such neurotransmitters as acetylcholine and dopamine. It may also even increase testosterone production and offer a host of neuroprotective properties. Take your dosage 45 minutes before the start of your workout.

After 30 days, you'll mercifully have completed this program. At that time, you should be significantly stronger (and hopefully a few pounds heavier). Regardless, after completing this cycle, I recommend taking five days off from weight training of any kind. When you resume, start with a program which emphasizes a greater number of reps, on average, per set, i.e. two exercises per bodypart for five sets of eight reps on a 3210 tempo.

This program might help you so much that you might even want to give up bodybuilding, change your name to something Slavic sounding, and join the Bulgarian Weight lifting team. The choice is yours.

Testosterone Nation - The 1-6 Principle
 
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Veel leesplezier
 
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amateurtje

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nice bro dit ga ik morgen eens goed doorlezen want heb nu geen tijd ervoor.
ziet er wel ingewikkeld uit :D maarja weer iets om naar uit te kijken morgen na de training :D
 

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Mijn examen gaat daar deels over, super :D
 

3XL

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en nu maar hopen dat wat je bij je examen krijgt in overeenstemming is met wat boven verkondigd wordt :D
 

builderB

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ik herinner me het volgende uit een artikel van Chad Waterbury:

Mishap #1. Post-tetanic Facilitation I'm sure most of you have heard of wave loading. Basically, it consists of using varying levels of maximal loads in an effort to cause immediate strength gains. An example of wave loading looks like this:


Wave 1
Set 1: 5 reps with 300 lbs.
Set 2: 3 reps with 320 lbs.
Set 3: 1 rep with 340 lbs.


Then, with the neural enhancements that occur, you're able to repeat the above sequence with somewhere around 2% more load for each set. In other words, your 5RM, 3RM, and 1RM are enhanced so you can do this:
Wave 2
Set 1: 5 reps with 305 lbs.
Set 2: 3 reps with 325 lbs.
Set 3: 1 rep with 345 lbs.


Pretty cool, eh? Yep, it's a very effective method. Many have extolled the virtues of this method by giving credit to a nervous system response called post-tetanic facilitation. But apparently, post-tetanic facilitation isn't limited to just wave loading, I've heard it used in relation to holding a supramaximal load (ie, a load greater than your 1RM) in order to cause immediate strength gains, among many other methods.


So what's the problem? Well, when they use post-tetanic facilitation in reference to wave loading, supramaximal holds, or some other maximal strength method they don't know what in the hell they're talking about!
The first problem is the word tetanic. This term actually describes artificial electrical stimulation of the motor neuron that innervates your muscles (actually, it can be any neuron, but we're talking about the muscle).
If I wanted to get a tetanic response, I would either need to shock your motor neuron with an electrode, or use some type of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on the surface of your muscle. So when you hear the word tetanic, the person better be talking about electrical muscle stimulation (EMS). But 99.9% of the time, they aren't. But it doesn't end there.


The second problem is the word facilitation. This is just a fancy way of describing some type of neural enhancement. So what's the big deal? Simple, do you know how long the effects of facilitation last? About 20-200ms (yes, that's milliseconds).


If a neuroscientist saw a flyer for an upcoming lecture titled "Post-tetanic Facilitation," he would expect to hear information pertaining to artificial electrical nerve stimulation that lasts, at most, a few hundred milliseconds.
So what should they call this neural enhancement that leads to immediate strength gains? Post-activation potentiation. This is the correct term because activation describes a maximal voluntary contraction (ie, lifting or holding a maximal load) and potentiation refers to an effect that lasts for minutes, not milliseconds.


Post-activation potentiation is one of the most effective maximal strength building methods I've ever used. Not only will it cause immediate increases in maximal strength, but it can also be a great tool for building more muscle since you'll be able to recruit more motor units after the supramaximal hold. I even designed a program based on this outstanding method titled Primed For Muscle. link to



[Link niet meer beschikbaar]


If you want to jump right into supramaximal holds, you should give this method a try during your next squat or bench press workout. Here's what you should do.

Warm-up
Set 1: 5 reps with 70% of your 1RM
Rest 90s
Set 2: 3 reps with 75% of your 1RM
Rest 90s
Set 3: 3 reps with 85% of your 1RM
Rest 120s


Supramaximal Hold to Induce Post-activation Potentiation


Set 1: Hold 120% of your 1RM just short of lock-out for 10s.
Rest 45-60s
Set 2: Perform as many reps as possible with 90% of your 1RM
Rest 240s
Set 3: Hold 120% of your 1RM just short of lock-out for 10s.
Rest 45-60s
Set 4: Perform as many reps as possible with 90% of your 1RM


You'll gain both strength and size with this method. Perform it once each week for your heaviest workout. Your other weekly workouts should consist of submaximal loading protocols such as 4x8, 3x15, or 2x20, for example.
So if you ever hear a strength coach or fitness writer throwing around "post-tetanic facilitation" in relation to resistance training, you can be sure that their neuroscience studies were limited to the back of a Wheaties box.
Testosterone Nation - Nervous Muscle
Er wordt wel van een ander loading schema gebruik gemaakt, maar hij heeft zo z'n gedachten over de naam post tetanic facilitation.
anyone?
 

3XL

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Ik heb al eerder gelezen dat sommigen de naam verkeerd gekozen vinden, maar dat is nueenmaal de naam waaronder dit soort training gaat.

Zelf gebruik trouwens altijd gewoon 1-6 :)
 

eq_909

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Mooi, nu staat alles duidelijk bij elkaar. Fijne methode van trainen, heb het al een aantal keer met succes toegepast.
 

builderB

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Ik heb al eerder gelezen dat sommigen de naam verkeerd gekozen vinden, maar dat is nueenmaal de naam waaronder dit soort training gaat.

Zelf gebruik trouwens altijd gewoon 1-6 :)
Ja idd, als het beestje maar een naampje heeft, maar vroeg me dit al een tijdje af en dacht er nu misschien eens verheldering in te krijgen.

1-6 is denk ik wel een goede naam :D
 

wimmos

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3XL - het valt me net op dat die eerste tekst 100% hetzelfde is als uit mijn cursus. Vanwaar heb je die gehaald? Ben jij mijn prof ofzo :D
 

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Heet ik Leybaert

:D
 

400mman

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Interessant artikel! Vooral over het behoud van snelheid bij het ontwikkelen van kracht. Hoe lang moet je een dergelijk schema gebruiken? Ik neem aan dat ook hier geld dat variatie de sleutel tot succes is.
 

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Ik doe het zelf meestal 4-6 weken. Hierna begin ik te merken dat het belastend voor m'n gewrichten word
 

400mman

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Hmmm gisteren maar even geprobeerd.

Fullsquat met 1*160kg en 6*130kg.

Eerste max heel pittig en de 6 herhaling gingen erg zwaar, :bang:
tweede max makkelijker 6 herhaling gingen makkelijker,:grumble:
derde max makkelijk maar wel zwaar (vermoeidheid?) 6 herhaling makkelijk.:laugh:

Overigens mijn enige beenoefening van de avond.

Gevoel direkt na de training:
Enorm lichte benen alsof ik op veren loop.:D Hmm zou ik het wel goed gedaan hebben?

12 uur na de training:
Benen beginnen zwaarder aan te voelen, er is toch wel wat gebeurd daar in die bovenbeen spieren. :fire:
 

philosopher

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The 1/6/12 Method for Strength, Hypertrophy, and Joint Health
by Marc McDougal

A great movie has action, gratuitous violence, weird…dirty coïtus, plot twists, and great dialogue. A great lifting routine should be similar, except without the great dialogue. Nobody likes a talker in the gym.

I’m going to dust off an old classic lifting scheme, and put a couple of sexy new twists on it for 2007. More experienced trainees may have heard of the 1/6 Method popularized many moons ago by Charles Poliquin and others. For some time now, it’s been one of my favorite protocols for increasing strength and gaining muscle simultaneously. Sadly, it’s rarely used. So I’m bringing it back, and I’m bringing it back better.

To put another feather in the cap of the 1/6 Method, I’ll share a quick recount from a few years ago. In preparation for a seminar I was to give on novel methods of lean body mass accretion, I contacted a man by the name of Jerry Telle. He came up with a brilliant system of negative overload exercises he modestly called “Telle-Kinetics”, and I had planned on including quite a bit of info about these movements in my talk. My inquiry to him was in search of any new ideas or methods he had come up with in his mad scientist laboratory that the public hadn’t had a chance to feast upon yet. Much to my surprise, he declared his favorite muscle gaining protocol the….1/6 Method. Not what I was looking for, as this was something I had been using for quite some time already, but interesting as hell nonetheless.

What is the 1/6 Method?
The concept is simple, activate as many motor units as possible, and then fatigue them. And for dessert (one of my additions), some increased blood flow and nutrient delivery to feed the muscles and pamper those creaky joints.

For those of you that plan to skim the whole article to find out just what the workout is, wait no more. I sympathize with ADD and ADHD, and even ADDHD (ADD in Hi Definition, rare but just as made up as the other two…). So here is the plan first, with the reasoning, as well as an exact workout split, to follow:

Perform a proper warm up, read Warming Up to a Great Workout in ‘07 for details. Do NOT skip this warm up!

The Workout:

1x1 @ 95% 1RM*
1x6 @ 95% 6RM
1x1 @ 100% 1RM
1x6 @ 100% 6RM
1x1 @ 100% 1RM
1x12 @ 105% 12RM

*An important note about 1RMs: This is a weight that you can perform for a single, completely controlled repetition. Just because you’re only performing one rep doesn’t mean you should sacrifice form and use too much weight. Form must be absolutely perfect; this is typically about 10% less than most people consider their actual 1RM. Picture the way you move a weight for the first repetition in a set of 6, this is how it should look.

This will be done for two paired movement-antagonistic exercises simultaneously, with adequate rest in between each set. For example, Bench Press and Seated Row, or Pull Up and Overhead Press.

So, your workout would look like this:

A1: Bench Press 1x1
Rest 90 seconds
A2: Seated Row 1x1
Rest 90 seconds
A1: Bench Press 1x6
Rest 90 seconds
A2: Seated Row 1x6
etc,
etc,

Why Does it Work so Well?
First, a quick low-down on motor unit anatomy, to make sure we’re all on the same page. Consider this the opening scene of a movie, where you get to learn about the protagonist’s sketchy childhood where his mother would lock him in the coat closet with a box full of raccoons twisted on LSD.

A motor unit (MU) is defined as a single motor neuron and all of the fibers it innervates. Those of you who have studied exercise physiology, that could quite possibly be the 875 thousandth time you’ve heard that. Once a motor neuron is activated, all fibers terminated upon by axons associated with the neuron will fire and contract maximally.

Muscles which require fine control have fewer fibers per MU. To help visualize, the muscles of the eye have about 10 fibers per motor unit allowing for very small adjustments based on number of motor units activated. Larger muscles designed for significant force generation have 100x or more as many fibers associated with each motor unit. The gastrocnemius of the calf, for example has 1,000-2,000 fibers associated with each motor unit.

An important point to remember, is that the strength of contraction for a given motor unit is constant (it either fires maximally, contracting all fibers, or it doesn’t fire at all), but the strength of contraction of an entire muscle is dependant upon how many motor units are activated.

What are the 1’s for?
Performing 1 repetition maximum (1RM) lifts aren’t just for powerlifters, Olympic lifters, and show-offs. Unfortunately many trainees are scared away from including them in their program due to potential injury, not having an adequate spotter, hypogonadism, or a variety of other reasons. This is a mistake! Here are some benefits of performing controlled 1RMs and the reasons for their inclusion in this program:

Increased MU Activation:
Due to Hennemen’s Size Principle, MUs are activated sequentially from small to large, the large ones only being called upon for maximal force. The heavier the weight lifted, the more MU’s called upon, it’s that simple. It doesn’t get any heavier than a 1RM.
Increased ability to activate more MUs after subsequent workouts:
Strength gain comes from improved neural efficiency as well as actual increase in cross-sectional area of the fiber. We want to take advantage of that phenomenon in this program. Every workout of performing 1RMs, your nervous system will learn how to activate more and more MUs. Novices can only activate a small percentage of their total available MU pool, even when performing a 1RM. With repeated effort, this percentage increases significantly.
Increased Rate Coding:
This is a lesser known and less discussed variable of significant importance. Rate coding is a measure of the electrical impulses sent by each motor neuron down to the axons. This can be either slow, or fast. Think of it as the difference between firing a semi-automatic handgun as fast as you can, vs. holding down the trigger on an automatic weapon. You’re firing off a hell of a lot more bullets per second with an Uzi than with your grandpa’s six-shooter. In physiology terms, the bullets are known as action potentials. A slow contraction of a muscle will fire off 5-8 action potentials (or pulses) per second, whereas a maximal contraction (1RM trying to move the weight as fast as possible) can fire off up to 200! This is not to be underestimated, as up to 15% of maximal force development comes from increased rate coding. Improve rate coding, improve force production, and improve strength. As a side note, isometric contractions produce extremely high levels of rate coding as well, which is one of their main benefits in using them concurrently with dynamic methods.
Increased MU Asynchronization:
In the past (or current, depending on who you ask), exercise physiologists assumed that the more synchronization we have between MU firing, the stronger the contraction. It makes perfect sense, if a larger percentage of MUs fire at the same exact time (synchronicity), then more force can be generated at that instant, and a greater load can be moved. Upon further inspection, it appears that the opposite is true. What we really want is for some MUs to fire at the same time, and then others to be fired in a delayed fashion, just by fractions of a second. This allows for a smooth, constant force to be applied to the resistance throughout the entire movement (1,2). If you were to blow your load, so to speak, all at once, you wouldn’t move the resistance very far before it came crashing down. This way, some MUs can fire and fatigue as others begin to fire fresh; and the initial MUs can then fire again. Remember, we’ve got up to 200 action potential pulses per second.
Golgi Tendon Organ Desensitization:
This is a grey area, and involves more theory and guesswork than the other areas.
Golgi tendon organs usually have a protective function against excessive tensile loads in the muscle (3); but with training, in theory this inhibitory action can be postponed and trained to respond only to increasing loads. The use of maximal loads (1RMs) causes this autogenic inhibition to desensitize over time (4,5). Kreigbaum’s biomechanics text theorized this possibility, but it was not proven. However read this excerpt from Tony Sheilds’ (of exrx.net) PhD thesis for an alternate view:

"In the strength training literature, the inhibitory influence of the Golgi tendon organ is frequently cited as a possible limiting factor to voluntary muscle activation (see for example; Determining factors of strength, (1985). National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal, 7(1): 10-23 and 7(2): 10-17). However, this view is inconsistent with a number of experimental observations. Firstly, there is evidence that type Ib afferents deliver only weak autogenic inhibition (Crago et al., 1975). Secondly, Ib afferents of limb extensor muscles deliver, in certain movement contexts, an excitatory influence to both the muscle that they innervate and that muscle's synergists (Pratt et al., 1995). Furthermore, during maximal voluntary contractions of the human tibialis anterior and hand muscles, afferents of muscular origin deliver a net excitation to homonymous motoneurones (Gandevia et al., 1990; Macefield et al., 1993). This is most clearly demonstrated by the 30 to 40% decline in the maximum motoneurone firing rate that occurs when the motor nerves are blocked, distal to the recording site, by anaesthetic (Gandevia et al., 1990; Macefield et al., 1993). These findings suggest that, during brief contractions, the excitatory influence of type Ia and II afferents from muscle spindles greatly exceeds any possible inhibitory effect of type Ib afferents from Golgi tendon organs. These observations also clearly indicate that afferent fibres from muscle spindles provide a significant proportion of the excitatory drive to the motoneurone pool during maximal voluntary contractions.”
So, the take home message, is…well, you figure it out

What are the 6’s for?
Now that you have a large pool of MUs activated, you want to fatigue them. We want to keep the reps fairly low, however, as not to cause any detrimental metabolic byproduct release that may hamper high threshold MU recruitment.

We then go back to the set of 1 as to kick start MU activation once again for subsequent sets of 6.

What is the last set of 12 for?
Training with low reps (1-6) exclusively can be highly demanding on the joints and connective tissue. Connective tissue uses lactic acid as a fuel for growth and repair, and low rep sets don’t provide this byproduct. Once we’re done calling upon the high threshold MUs that can be impaired by lactic acid, now its time to set it loose. Aside from the lactic acid release from this set of 12, we also increase blood flow to the working muscle and joint, which increases nutrient delivery at a much higher volume than has been addressed by the low rep work. Why 105% of 12RM? The preceding 1RM set will allow you to call upon increased strength and a higher pool of MU’s, so you will find that your previous 12RM will now be more like a 14 or 15RM (acutely).

What are the antagonistic movement pairings for?
You’ll find that you actually become stronger between sets by pairing exercises in opposite planes of movement; this is another trick to increase MU activation. In other words, you will be able to increase performance above and beyond that of an equal time spent resting.

General Tips:

Make sure you move the load as fast as possible, concentrically. The act of trying to move the load as fast as possible increases MU activation, regardless of how fast it actually moves.
Perform the protocol exactly as it is laid out.
Workout 1: Horizontal Push/Horizontal Pull/Arms

A1: Low Incline Bench Press
A2: Seated Row (Pronated/Medium Grip)

A1: 1x1 @ 95% 1RM
A2: 1x1 @ 95% 1RM
A1: 1x6 @ 95% 6RM
A2: 1x6 @ 95% 6RM
A1: 1x1 @ 100% 1RM
A2: 1x1 @ 100% 1RM
A1: 1x6 @ 100% 6RM
A2: 1x6 @ 100% 6RM
A1: 1x1 @ 100% 1RM
A2: 1x1 @ 100% 1RM
A1: 1x12 @ 105% 12RM
A2: 1x12 @ 105% 12RM

B1: Flat DB Flyes 2x12
B2: Standing Cable Rear Delt Crossovers 2x12
*Alternate sets of B1/B2

C1: Incline DB Curl 1x6/1x8/1x12
C2: Lying EZ Bar Tricep Extension 1x6/1x8/1x12
*Alternate sets of C1/C2
**Use 7RM, 9RM, and 13RM loads respectively (leaving 1 rep in the hole)

Workout 2: Hip Dominant Legs/Calves

A1: Deadlift
A2: Seated Calf Raise

*Same protocol as above

B1: Unilateral Romanian Deadlift 2x12
B2: Unilateral Seated Calf Raise 2x12

Workout 3: Vertical Push/Vertical Pull/Arms

A1: Weighted Pull Up
A2: Seated BB Overhead Press (to the front)

*Same protocol as above

B1: Decline 2DB Pullover (neutral grip) 2x12
B2: Incline Unilateral DB Lateral Raise 2x12

C1: Reverse Preacher EZ Curl 1x6/1x8/1x12
C2: Incline Tricep Cable Pressdown 1x6/1x8/1x12

Workout 4: Quad Dominant Legs/Calves

A1: BB Front Squat
A2: Unilateral Standing Calf Raise

*Same protocol as above

B1: Decline Step Up 2x12
B2: Bilateral Standing Calf Raise 2x12

Perform this workout for no more 5 weeks. I would highly recommend sipping on a shake during the workout consisting of rapidly digesting carbs and protein, highly diluted.

References
1. Yao W, Fuglevand A, Enoka R. J Neurophysiol 83:441-452, 2000.
2. Semmler JG, Sale MV, Kidgell DJ. Proc Int Australas Winter Conf Brain Res In press, 2006.
3. Nicole J. Chimera, Kathleen A. Swanik, C. Buz Swanik, Stephen J. Straub J Athl Train, 2004 Jan-Mar; 39(1): 24-31.
4. D. Zytnicki, J. Lafleur, G. Horcholle-Bossavit, F. Lamy and L. Jami, J Neurophysiol 64: 1380-1389, 1990;
5. Scott, Steffan L., Acute Effect of Heavy Pre-Loading on Horizontal and Vertical
Jump Performance
 

Ano_1978_15

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In hoeverre zou je het zelfde principe kunnen toepassen maar dan 8,3,8,3 ?
Hoe luidt de theorie dan?
 

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